Difference between revisions of "Administrative Procedure Act"

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==== Citations ====
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5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter2&edition=prelim 551–559], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim 701–706], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim 1305], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim 3105], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3344&num=0&edition=prelim 3344], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim 5372], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim 7521] (2012); originally enacted by [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/01/act-pl79-404.pdf Pub. L. No. 79-404], 60 Stat. 237, Ch. 324, §§ 1–12, June 11, 1946.
  
5 U.S.C. §§ 551–559, 701–706, 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, 7521 (2012); originally enacted June 11, 1946, by Pub. L. No. 404, 60 Stat. 237, Ch. 324, §§ 1–12.
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The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) as originally enacted was repealed by [http://uscode.house.gov/codification/t5/PubL89-554.pdf Pub. L. No. 89-554], 80 Stat. 381, Sept. 6, 1966, as part of the general revision of title 5 of the United States Code. Its provisions were incorporated into title 5 of the United States Code. Although the original section numbers are used sometimes, it is actually an error to use the original section numbers unless one is referring to the APA prior to its codification in 1966. In this volume all references to the Act are to sections of title 5.
  
The Administrative Procedure Act (APA), as originally enacted, was repealed by Pub. L. No. 89-554, 80 Stat. 381 (September 6, 1966), as part of the general revision of title 5 of the United States Code. Its provisions were incorporated into the sections of title 5 listed above. Although the original section numbers are used sometimes, it is actually an error to use the original section numbers unless one is referring to the APA prior to its codification in 1966. In this volume all references to the Act are to sections of title 5.
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552&num=0&edition=prelim Section 552] has been revised significantly since 1946 and is commonly known as the [[Freedom of Information Act]]. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552a&num=0&edition=prelim Section 552a] (the [[Privacy Act]]) was added to the APA in 1974 and has been amended several times since. Section 552b (the [[Government in the Sunshine Act]]) was added in 1976 and amended once. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim Sections 701–706] pertaining to judicial review are discussed and set forth separately in [[Judicial Review of Agency Action]]. Two significant laws relating to rulemaking and adjudication were enacted in 1990—the [[Administrative Dispute Resolution Act]] (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter4&edition=prelim §§ 571–584]) and the [[Negotiated Rulemaking Act]] (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter3&edition=prelim §§ 561–570])—which are discussed separately.
  
Section 552 has been revised significantly since 1946 and is commonly known as the Freedom of Information Act. Section 552a (the Privacy Act) was added to the APA in 1974 and has been amended several times since. Section 552b (the Government in the Sunshine Act) was added in 1976 and amended once. These sections and sections 701–706 pertaining to judicial review are discussed and set forth separately in this book. Two significant laws relating to rulemaking and adjudication were enacted in 1990—the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 571–584) and the Negotiated Rulemaking Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 561–570), which are discussed separately below, as well as in separate chapters in this book.
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==Overview==
  
==== Overview ====
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Attempts to regularize federal administrative procedures go back at least to the 1930s. Early in 1939, at the suggestion of the attorney general, President Roosevelt asked the attorney general to appoint a distinguished committee to study existing administrative procedures and to formulate recommendations. The Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure, chaired by Dean Acheson, produced a series of monographs on agency functions and submitted its ''Final Report to the President and the Congress'' in 1941. These materials, as well as extensive hearings held before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1941, are primary historical sources for the APA.
  
Attempts  to  regularize  federal  administrative  procedures  go  back  at  least  to  the  1930s.  Early  in  1939,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  attorney  general,  President  Roosevelt  asked  the  attorney  general  to  appoint  a  distinguished  committee  to  study  existing  administrative  procedures  and  to  formulate  recommendations.  The Attorney  General’s  Committee  on  Administrative  Procedure,  chaired  by  Dean  Acheson,  produced  a  series  of  monographs  on  agency  functions  and  submitted  its  Final  Report  to  the  President  and  the  Congress  in  1941.  These  materials,  plus  extensive  hearings  held  before  a  subcommittee  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  the  Judiciary  in  1941,  are  primary  historical  sources  for  the  Administrative  Procedure  Act.  The  Administrative  Procedure  Act  was signed into law by President Truman on June 11, 1946. In the months that followed, the Department of Justice compiled a manual of advice and interpretation of its various provisions. The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act,published in 1947 (and  reprinted  in  the  Appendix), remains the principal guide to the structure and intent of the APA. The Manual (page  9)  states the purposes of the Act  as follows:
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The APA was signed into law by President Truman on June 11, 1946. In the months that followed, the Department of Justice compiled a manual of advice and interpretation of its various provisions. [http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/AttorneyGeneralsManual.pdf The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act], published in 1947, remains the principal guide to the structure and intent of the APA. The Manual states the purposes of the APA as follows:
  
* (1) To require agencies to keep the public currently informed of theirorganization, procedures, and rules
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#To require agencies to keep the public currently informed of their organization, procedures, and rules,
* (2)To provide for public participation in the rulemaking process
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#To provide for public participation in the rulemaking process,
* (3)To prescribe uniform standards for the conduct of formal rulemakingand  adjudicatory proceedings (i.e., proceedings required by statute to be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing)
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#To prescribe uniform standards for the conduct of formal rulemaking and adjudicatory proceedings (i.e., proceedings required by statute to be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing), and
* (4)To restate the law of judicial review.
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#To restate the law of judicial review.
  
The Act  imposes upon agencies certain procedural requirements for two modes of agency decision making: rulemaking and adjudication. In general, the term “agency” refers to any authority of the government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency—  but  excluding the Congress, the courts, and the governments of territories, possessions, or the District of Columbia.<ref>See 5 U.S.C. §§ 551(1), 701(b)(1) for other specific exemptions. </ref>  Definitions  of other terms may be found in section 551.  
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The APA imposes upon agencies certain procedural requirements for two modes of agency decision making: rulemaking and adjudication. In general, the term “agency” refers to any authority of the government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency—but excluding the Congress, the courts, and the governments of territories, possessions, or the District of Columbia. Definitions of other terms may be found in [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section551&num=0&edition=prelim section 551].
  
'''Structure of the Administrative Procedure Act.'''  The Administrative  Procedure  Act  has two major subdivisions: sections 551 through 559, dealing in general with agency proceduresand sections 701 through 706, dealing in general with judicial review. In addition, several sections dealing with administrative law judges (§§ 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, and 7521) are scattered through title 5 of the United States Code.  The  sections  pertaining  to  judicial  review  are  discussed  in  Chapter  2  of  this  volume.  As  noted,  sections  552,  552a,  and  552b  are  also  discussed  in  separate  chapters,  as  are  the  new  sections  added  by  the  Administrative  Dispute  Resolution  and  Negotiated  Rulemaking  Acts.
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===Structure of the Administrative Procedure Act===
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The APA has two major subdivisions: [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter2&edition=prelim sections 551 through 559], dealing in general with agency procedures, and [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim sections 701 through 706], dealing in general with judicial review. In addition, several sections dealing with administrative law judges (§§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim 1305], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim 3105], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3344&num=0&edition=prelim 3344], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim 5372], and [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim 7521]) are scattered through title 5 of the United States Code.  
  
The structure of the APA is shaped around the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, with different sets of procedural requirements prescribed for each. Rulemakingisagency  action that regulates the future conduct of persons through formulation and issuance of an agency statement designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy. It is essentially legislative in nature because of its future general applicability and its concern for policy considerations. By contrast, adjudication isconcerned  with determination of past and present rights and liabilities. The result of an adjudicative proceeding is the issuance of an “order.” (Licensing decisions are considered to be adjudication.)
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The structure of the APA is shaped around the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, with different sets of procedural requirements prescribed for each. Rulemaking is agency action that regulates the future conduct of persons through the formulation and issuance of an agency statement designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy. It is essentially legislative in nature because of its future general applicability and its concern for policy considerations. By contrast, adjudication is concerned with determination of past and present rights and liabilities. The result of an adjudicative proceeding is the issuance of an “order.” (Licensing decisions are considered to be adjudication.)
  
The line separating these two modes of agency action is not always clearbecause agencies engage in a great variety of actions. Most agencies use rulemaking to formulate future policy, though there is no bar to announcing policy statements in adjudicatory orders. Agencies normally use a combination of rulemaking and adjudication to effectuate their programs. The APA definition of a “rule,” somewhat confusingly, speaks of an “agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect .  .  .  .” The words “or particular” were apparently included in the definition to encompass such actions as the setting of rates or the approval of corporate reorganizations, to be carried out under the relatively flexible procedures governing rulemaking.<ref>For discussion of the inclusion of “or particular” in the definition, seeKENNETH C. DAVIS & RICHARD PIERCE, 1 ADMINISTRATIVE LAW TREATISE §§ 6.1 (3d ed. 1994).</ref>
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The line separating these two modes of agency action is not always clear because agencies engage in a great variety of actions. Most agencies use rulemaking to formulate future policy, though there is no bar to announcing policy statements in adjudicatory orders. Agencies normally use a combination of rulemaking and adjudication to effectuate their programs. The APA definition of a “rule,” somewhat confusingly, speaks of an “agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect.” The words “or particular” were apparently included in the definition to encompass such actions as the setting of rates or the approval of corporate reorganizations, to be carried out under the relatively flexible procedures governing rulemaking.  
  
Beyond the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, the APA subdivides each of these categories of agency action into formal and informal proceedings. Whether a particular rulemaking or adjudication proceeding is considered to be “formal” depends on whether the proceeding is required by statute to be “on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing” (5 U.S.C. §§ 553(c), 554(a)). The Act  prescribes elaborate procedures for both formal rulemaking and formal adjudication, and relatively minimal procedures for informal rulemaking. Virtually  no procedures are  prescribed  by  the  APA  for the remaining category of informal adjudication, which is by far the most prevalent form of governmental action.<ref>See Paul Verkuil, A Study of Informal Adjudication Procedures, 43 U. CHI. L. REV. 739 (1976), for a discussion of informal adjudication.</ref>
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Beyond the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, the APA subdivides each of these categories of agency action into formal and informal proceedings. Whether a particular rulemaking or adjudication proceeding is considered to be “formal” depends on whether the proceeding is required by statute to be “on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing” (5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section553&num=0&edition=prelim 553(c)], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim 554(a)]). The APA prescribes elaborate procedures for both formal rulemaking and formal adjudication, and relatively minimal procedures for informal rulemaking. The APA prescribes virtually no procedures for the remaining category of informal adjudication, which is by far the most prevalent form of governmental action.  
  
'''Rulemaking'''. Section 553 sets forth the basic requirements for rulemaking:notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, followed by an opportunity for some level of participation by interested persons, and finally publication of the rule, in most instances at least 30 days before it becomes effective. For a detailed discussion of rulemaking procedures, see Jeffrey Lubbers’s A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking,  published  by  the  American  Bar  Association  (5th  ed.  2012).
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===Rulemaking===
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section553&num=0&edition=prelim Section 553] sets forth the basic requirements for rulemaking: notice of proposed rulemaking in the ''Federal Register'', followed by an opportunity for some level of participation by interested persons, and finally publication of the rule, in most instances at least 30 days before it becomes effective. For a detailed discussion of rulemaking procedures, ''see'' Jeffrey Lubbers’s ''A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking''.
  
Excluded from the coverage of the Act  are rulemakings involving military or foreign affairs functions and matters relating to agency management or personnel, public property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts. These  exceptions  to  the  Act’s  general policy of  providing  an opportunity for public participation in rulemaking, to foster the fair and informed exercise of agency authorityare “narrowly construed and only reluctantly countenanced.”<ref>Am. Fed’n of Gov’t Emps., AFL-CIO v. Block, 655 F.2d 1153, 1156 (D.C. Cir. 1981).</ref>  They are neither mandatory nor intended to discourage agencies from using public participation procedures. On the contrary, when Congress enacted the APA, it encouraged agencies to use the notice-and-comment procedure in some excepted cases, and many agencies routinely do so in making certain kinds of exempted rules. The  Administrative  Conference  encouraged this trend and called on Congress to eliminate or narrow several of these exemptions.<ref>See Administrative Conference Recommendations 69-8, 73-5, 79-2, and 82-2, at 1 C.F.R. pt. 305 (1992). See generally the discussion in A GUIDETO FEDERAL AGENCY RULEMAKING.</ref> “Regulatory  reform” legislative proposals considered over the years have contained provisions to alter or eliminate several of these exemptions.
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Excluded from the coverage of the APA are rulemakings involving military or foreign affairs functions and matters relating to agency management or personnel, public property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts. The APA’s general policy is to provide an opportunity for public participation in rulemaking, to foster the fair and informed exercise of agency authority; these exceptions are “narrowly construed and only reluctantly countenanced.” ''Am. Fed’n'' ''of Gov't Emps., AFL-CIO v. Block'', 655 F.2d 1153 (D.C. Cir. 1981). They are neither mandatory nor intended to discourage agencies from using public participation procedures. On the contrary, when Congress enacted the APA, it encouraged agencies to use the notice-and-comment procedure in some excepted cases, and many agencies routinely do so in making certain kinds of exempted rules. ACUS encouraged this trend and called on Congress to eliminate or narrow several of these exemptions. “Regulatory reform” legislative proposals considered over the years have contained provisions to alter or eliminate several of these exemptions.
  
Most rulemaking proceedings involve informal rulemaking, where all that the APA requires for public participation is an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments; oral presentations may also be permitted. The published rule must incorporate a concise general statement of its basis and purpose. Despite the brevity of these requirements, it  is  important  to  note  that  Congress has routinely, through other statutes, added procedural requirements that affect various agency programs. These additional statutory requirements may apply to specific agencies or programs or may be governmentwide  (such as the Regulatory Flexibility Act;  see  Chapter  21). Recent presidents have also imposed additional requirements for rulemaking. (See Chapter  4,  White House Orders and Memoranda on  Rulemaking.Though courts have sometimes sought to add procedural requirements, the Supreme Court’s decision in Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.,435 U.S. 519 (1978), has, to a great extent, limited this kind of judicial activity. In Vermont Yankee, the Supreme Court held that where rulemaking is governed by the (informal) requirements of section 553, as in the case of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s regulation of nuclear power plants, the courts may not require additional procedures.
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Most rulemaking proceedings involve informal rulemaking, where all that the APA requires for public participation is an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments; oral presentations may also be permitted. The published rule must incorporate a concise general statement of its basis and purpose. Despite the brevity of these requirements, Congress has routinely, through other statutes, added procedural requirements that affect various agency programs. These additional statutory requirements may apply to specific agencies or programs or may be government-wide (such as the [[Regulatory Flexibility Act]]). Recent presidents have also imposed additional requirements for rulemaking. ''See'' [[White House Orders, Bulletins, and Memoranda]]. Though courts have sometimes sought to add procedural requirements, the Supreme Court’s decision in [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep435/usrep435519/usrep435519.pdf Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.], 435 U.S. 519 (1978), has, to a great extent, limited this kind of judicial activity. In ''Vermont Yankee'', the Supreme Court held that where rulemaking is governed by the (informal) requirements of section 553, as in the case of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s regulation of nuclear power plants, the courts may not require additional procedures.
  
The APA also provides for formal rulemaking—aprocedure  employed when rules are required by statute to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Essentially, this procedure requires that the agency issue its rule after the kind of trial-type hearing procedures (§§ 556, 557) normally reserved for adjudicatory orders (discussed  below). The Supreme Court, in United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co., 410 U.S. 224 (1973), held that such a procedure was required only where the statute involved specifically requires an “on the record” hearing. Because few statutes do  so, formal rulemaking is used infrequently.<ref>See, e.g., 21 U.S.C. §§ 371(e)(3) (issuance of standards under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). In United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co., 410 U.S. 224 (1973), a statutory requirement of a decision “after hearing” was held insufficient to make sections 556 and 557 applicable (setting of rates under the Interstate Commerce Act).</ref>  However, numerous agency statutes (often called “hybrid rulemaking” statutes) do require some specific procedures beyond the basic notice-and-comment elements of informal rulemaking.
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The APA also provides for formal rulemaking—a procedure employed when rules are required by statute to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Essentially, this procedure requires that the agency issue its rule after the kind of trial-type hearing procedures (§§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim 556], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim 557]) normally reserved for adjudicatory orders. The Supreme Court, in [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep410/usrep410224/usrep410224.pdf United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co.], 410 U.S. 224 (1973), held that such a procedure was required only where the statute involved specifically requires an “on the record” hearing. Because few statutes include this requirement, formal rulemaking is used infrequently.  However, numerous agency statutes (often called “hybrid rulemaking” statutes) do require some specific procedures beyond the basic notice-and-comment elements of informal rulemaking.
  
Negotiated RulemakingThe Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990,  discussed  in  greater  detail  in  Chapter  18,  establishes a statutory framework for the conduct of negotiated rulemaking, a procedure developed in large part through Administrative  Conference–sponsored  research. As with other alternative means of dispute resolution (ADR),<ref>See discussion of the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act elsewhere.</ref>  negotiated  rulemaking uses consensual techniques to produce results, rather than an agency decision based upon its data and conclusions, hopefully aided by public input. Numerous agencies have successfully completed negotiated rules over the years, but it remains an exceptional technique for adopting rules.  
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===Negotiated Rulemaking===
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The [[Negotiated Rulemaking Act]] of 1990 establishes a statutory framework for the conduct of negotiated rulemaking, a procedure developed in large part through ACUS–sponsored research. As with other alternative means of dispute resolution (ADR), negotiated rulemaking uses consensual techniques to produce results, rather than an agency decision based upon its data and conclusions, hopefully aided by public input. Numerous agencies have successfully completed negotiated rules over the years, but it remains an exceptional technique for adopting rules.
  
The Negotiated Rulemaking Act clearly establishes regulatory agencies’ authority to use such consensual techniques as negotiated rulemaking without limiting agency innovation. The  Act  identifies criteria for the discretionary determination by agency heads of whether and when to use negotiated rulemaking.  It  also  sets forth basic requirements for public notice and the conduct of meetings under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.
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The Negotiated Rulemaking Act clearly establishes regulatory agencies’ authority to use such consensual techniques as negotiated rulemaking without limiting agency innovation. It identifies criteria for the discretionary determination by agency heads of whether and when to use negotiated rulemaking and sets forth basic requirements for public notice and the conduct of meetings under the [[Federal Advisory Committee Act]].
  
'''Adjudication'''. Sections  554, 556, and 557 apply to formal adjudication (i.e., to cases for which an adjudicatory proceeding is required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing).<ref>See discussion of the Equal Access to Justice Act, which allows certain parties who prevail over the government in formal adjudicatory proceedings (other than licensing and ratemaking) to recover attorney’s fees and expenses.</ref>  These sections apply, for example, to proceedings by certain agencies seeking to impose civil money penalties as part of a regulatory enforcement program.<ref>See, e.g., 12 U.S.C. §§ 504, 505 (banking); 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a (Medicare fraud); 16 U.S.C. § 1858 (fishery conservation).</ref>
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===Adjudication===
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Sections [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim 554], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim 556], and [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim 557] apply to formal adjudication (i.e., to cases for which an adjudicatory proceeding is required by statute to be determined on the record after the opportunity for an agency hearing).  These sections apply, for example, to proceedings by certain agencies seeking to impose civil money penalties as part of a regulatory enforcement program.  
  
Section 554(a) specifically exempts six types of proceedings from the requirements of these sections: matters  subject  to  a  subsequent  de  novotrial  in  court;  certain  personnel  matters  other  than  for  administrative  law  judges;  decisions  based  solely  on  inspections,  tests,  or  elections;  military  or  foreign  affairs  functions;  cases  where  an  agency  acts  as  agent  for  a  court;  and  certification  of  worker  representatives.  Section  554(b)  specifies  notice  requirements.  Section  554(c)  provides  for  an  opportunity  for  informal  settlements  where  practicable.  Section  554(d)  forbids  presiding  officers  from  engaging  in  ex  parte(off-the-record)  consultations  on  facts  at  issue  in  the  case.  The  subsection  also  addresses  “separation  of  functions”  by  restricting  agency  employees  engaged  in  investigation  or  prosecution  of  a  case  from  supervising  the  presiding  officer  or  participating  or  advising  in  the  decision  in  that  or  a  factually  related  case  (with  certain  exceptions).  Section  554(e)  authorizes  agencies,  in  their  discretion,  to  issue  declaratory  orders  that  would  terminate  a  controversy  or  remove  uncertainty  with  respect  to  matters  required  by  statute  to  be  determined  on  the  record  after  opportunity  for  a  hearing. 
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim Section 554(a)] specifically exempts six types of proceedings from the requirements of these sections:  
  
Sections  556  and  557  prescribe  the  specific  procedures  to be  used  in formal  adjudication.<ref>Note that sections 554, 556, and 557 contain some special, more flexible procedures for cases involving initial licensing and rulemaking.</ref>  In  brief, a  trial-type  hearing  must  be  held, conducted  either  by  some  or all  of  the  members  of  the  agency  or by  an administrative  law  judge  (appointed  under  5  U.S.C.  §§  3105).  An  administrative  law  judge  (ALJ)  is  normally  the  presiding  officer  in  formal  adjudication.  The  APA  (§§  556(c))  spells  out  the  powers  and  duties  of  ALJs  (formerly  called  hearing  examiners).  It  also  provides  for the  independence  of  ALJs  by  protecting  their  tenure  (5  U.S.C.  §§  7521)  and pay  (5  U.S.C.  §§  5372)  and  prohibiting  inconsistent  duties  (5  U.S.C.  §§  3105).  In  addition,  under  5  U.S.C.  §§  1305,  the  Office  of Personnel  Management  has  prescribed  a  special  selection  procedure  for  the  appointment  of  ALJs.  Currently,  there  are  approximately  1,600  ALJs  in  the  federal  government,  the  vast  majority  of  which  are  located  in  the  Social  Security  Administration.  
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*matters subject to a subsequent de novo trial in court;
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*certain personnel matters other than for administrative law judges;
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*decisions based solely on inspections, tests, or elections;
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*military or foreign affairs functions;
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*cases in which an agency acts as agent for a court; and
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*certification of worker representatives.
  
Section 556  also  covers  disqualification  of presiding  officers, burden  of  proof, and parties’  rights  to  cross-examination. It  provides  that the  transcript  of  testimony  and  exhibits, together  with  all  documents  filed  in the  proceeding, constitutes  the exclusive  record for decision.  
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Section 554(b) specifies notice requirements. Section 554(c) provides for an opportunity for submission and consideration of facts, arguments, and informal settlements where practicable. Section 554(d) forbids presiding officers from engaging in ex parte (off-the-record) consultations on facts at issue in the case. The subsection also addresses “separation of functions” by restricting agency employees engaged in investigation or prosecution of a case from supervising the presiding officer or participating or advising in the decision in that or a factually related case (with certain exceptions). Section 554(e) authorizes agencies, in their discretion, to issue declaratory orders that would terminate a controversy or remove uncertainty with respect to matters required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for a hearing.
  
Section  557 provides  that  when,  as  is  usually  the case, a hearing is  not  conducted by the agency itself,  the presiding officer (normally  an  ALJ) must  issue  an  initial  decision—unless  the agency  requires  that the entire  record  be  certified  to  the agency  for  decision. An  initial  decision  automatically  becomes  the agency’s  decision  unless  appealed  or reviewed  on  motion  of the agency.  Section  557  provides, in general,  an  opportunity  for  parties  to  submit  for  consideration  their  own  proposed  findings  and conclusions,  or  exceptions  to  decisions.  
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Sections 556 and 557 prescribe the specific procedures to be used in formal adjudication.  In brief, a trial-type hearing must be held, conducted either by some or all of the members of the agency or by an administrative law judge (ALJ) (appointed under 5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim § 3105]). An ALJ is normally the presiding officer in formal adjudication. The APA ([http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim § 556(c)]) spells out the powers and duties of ALJs, formerly called hearing examiners. It also provides for the independence of ALJs by protecting their tenure (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim § 7521]) and pay (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim § 5372]) and prohibiting inconsistent duties (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim § 3105]). In addition, under 5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim § 1305], the [https://www.opm.gov/services-for-agencies/administrative-law-judges Office of Personnel Management] has prescribed a special selection procedure for the appointment of ALJs. Currently, there are over 1,900 ALJs in the federal government, the vast majority of which are located in the Social Security Administration. In 2018, the Supreme Court held that ALJs are inferior officers under the Appointments Clause of the U.S. Constitution and must be appointed by the President or a head of a department. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/17pdf/17-130_4f14.pdf Lucia v. SEC], 138 S. Ct. 2044 (2018). Subsequently, President Trump issued Executive Order 13843, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2018-07-13/pdf/2018-15202.pdf Excepting Administrative Law Judges From the Competitive Service], which placed ALJs in the excepted service and afforded agency heads more flexibility in hiring decisions.
  
The  record  must  show  the  ruling  on  each  finding,  conclusion,  or  exception  presented. Section 557(d)  was  added  to  the  APA  by  the  Government  in  the  Sunshine  Act  in  1976  (see  Chapter  14)  to  prohibit  ex  partecommunications  relevant  to  the  merits  of a  pending  formal  agency  proceeding.  However, where  ex  partecommunications  do  take  place, their  content  must  be  placed  on  the  public  record,  and,  if  the  communication  was  knowingly  made  by  a  party,  the  presiding  officer  may  require  the  party  to show  cause  why  a  decision  should  not  be  made  adversely  affecting  the  party’s  interest.<ref>While the APA does not forbid ex parte contacts in informal rulemaking, the Administrative Conference recommended agency practices for making the public aware of most of those that do occur. See Conference Recommendations 77-3 and 80-6, at 1 C.F.R. pt. 305 (1992).</ref> Most  agencies  have  adopted  procedures  applicable  to  their  formal  hearings.  (A  list  of  citations  appears  at  the end  of  the chapter.)  The  Manual  for Administrative  Law  Judges  contains  a  detailed  discussion  of  procedures  for  the  conduct  of  hearings  and  a  collection  of  model  forms.
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim Section 556] also covers disqualification of presiding officers, burden of proof, and parties’ rights to cross-examination. It provides that the transcript of testimony and exhibits, together with all documents filed in the proceeding, constitutes the exclusive record for decision.
  
'''Alternative  Means  of  Dispute  Resolution'''. The  Administrative  Dispute  Resolution  Act  specifically  provides agencies  with  the authority  to  employ  mediation, arbitration, and  other  consensual  methods  of dispute  resolution  in  resolving  cases  under  the APA  and  in  other  kinds  of  agency disputes. The  legislation  specifically  establishes  a  federal  policy  encouraging  ADR  in place  of  more  costly, time-consuming  adjudication.  While  no  agency  is  forced  to use  ADR  techniques, the legislation  requires  each agency  head  to undertake  a review  of  typical  agency litigation  and administrative  disputes  to assess  where  ADR  techniques  will  be useful. The Act  is  discussed  in  greater  detail  in  Chapter  5.  
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim Section 557] provides that when, as is usually the case, a hearing is not conducted by the agency itself, the presiding officer (normally an ALJ) must issue an initial decision—unless the agency requires that the entire record be certified to the agency for decision. An initial decision automatically becomes the agency’s decision unless appealed or reviewed on motion of the agency. Section 557 provides, in general, an opportunity for parties to submit for consideration their own proposed findings and conclusions, or exceptions to decisions. The record must show the ruling on each finding, conclusion, or exception presented. Section 557(d) was added to the APA by the [[Government in the Sunshine Act]] in 1976 to prohibit ex parte communications relevant to the merits of a pending formal agency proceeding. However, where ex parte communications do take place, their content must be placed on the public record, and, if the communication was knowingly made by a party, the presiding officer may require the party to show cause why a decision should not be made adversely affecting the party’s interest. Most agencies have adopted procedures applicable to their formal hearings. The [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/P1%201993%20Mullins%20ALJ%20Manual%203rd%20ed%20%28CP%2013%29_0.pdf Manual for Administrative Law Judges] contains a detailed discussion of procedures for the conduct of hearings and a collection of model forms.
  
'''Miscellaneous  Provisions'''.  Section  555  states  various  procedural  rights  of private  parties,  which  may  be  incidental  to rulemaking, adjudication, or  the exercise  of any  other  agency authority. Section  555(b)  addresses  appearances  in agency  proceedings  by  parties, counsel,  and  other  interested  persons. Section  555(c)  provides  that  a  person  compelled  to  submit  data  or  evidence  is entitled  to a  copy  or  transcript, except  that  in  nonpublic  investigations  this  may  be  limited  to a right  to  inspect  the  official  transcript.  Additional  provisions  of section  555  relate  to  subpoenas  and to the  requirement  of  prompt  notice  of  denials  of  applications,  petitions,  or  other  requests  made  to  agencies.
+
===Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution===
 +
The [[Administrative Dispute Resolution Act]] (ADRA) specifically provides agencies with the authority to employ mediation, arbitration, and other consensual methods of dispute resolution in resolving cases under the APA and in other kinds of agency disputes. The ADRA specifically establishes a federal policy encouraging ADR in place of more costly, time-consuming adjudication. While no agency is forced to use ADR techniques, the ADRA requires each agency head to undertake a review of typical agency litigation and administrative disputes to assess where ADR techniques will be useful.
  
Section 558  is  a  rarely  invoked  section  of the APA. Section 558(b) makes  clear  the  requirement  that  agency rules, orders, and sanctions  be  within  the  jurisdiction  delegated  to  the  agency  and  otherwise  authorized  by  law. Section 558(c) contains  some  special  notice  provisions and other  procedural  requirements  for  handling  applications, suspensions, revocations,  or license  renewals.
+
===Miscellaneous Provisions===
 +
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section555&num=0&edition=prelim Section 555] states various procedural rights of private parties, which may be incidental to rulemaking, adjudication, or the exercise of any other agency authority. Section 555(b) addresses appearances in agency proceedings by parties, counsel, and other interested persons. Section 555(c) provides that a person compelled to submit data or evidence is entitled to a copy or transcript, except that in nonpublic investigations this may be limited to a right to inspect the official transcript. Additional provisions of section 555 relate to subpoenas and to the requirement of prompt notice of denials of applications, petitions, or other requests made to agencies.
  
==== Legislative  History:<ref>The summary of legislative history is taken from the Attorney General’s Manual, p.8.</ref> ====
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section558&num=0&edition=prelim Section 558] is a rarely invoked section of the APA. Section 558(b) makes clear the requirement that agency rules, orders, and sanctions be within the jurisdiction delegated to the agency and otherwise authorized by law. Section 558(c) contains some special notice provisions and other procedural requirements for handling applications, suspensions, revocations, or license renewals.
  
The  legislative  history  of  the  Administrative  Procedure  Act  begins  with  the  Final  Report  of  the  Attorney  General’s  Committee  on  Administrative  Procedure  in  1941.  This  report  led  to  the  introduction  in  Congress  of  the  socalled  majority  and  minority  bills,  respectively  designated  as  S.675  and  S.674,  77th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.  These  bills,  together  with  S.918,  formed  the  basis  for  extensive  hearings  held  in  1941  before  a  subcommittee  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  the  Judiciary.  In  1945,  the  House  Committee  on  the  Judiciary  held  brief  hearings  on  various  administrative  procedure  bills,  of  which  H.R.1203,  79th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.,  was  the  precursor  of  the  Act  as  passed.  Also  in  June  1945,  the  Senate  Committee  on  the  Judiciary  issued  a  comparative  print,  with  comments,  which  is  an  essential  part  of  the  legislative  history.  The  committee  reports  on  the  Act  are  Sen.  Rep.  No.  752,  79th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.  and  H.R.  Rep.  No.  1980,  79th  Cong.,  2d  Sess.  In  October  1945,  the  attorney  general,  at  the  request  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  submitted  a  letter,  with  memorandum  attached,  setting  forth  the  understanding  of  the  Department  of  Justice  as  to  the  purpose  and  meaning  of  the  various  provisions  of  the  bill  (S.7).  This  letter  and  memorandum  constitute  Appendix  B  of  the  Senate  Committee  Report  and  also  appear  as  an  appendix  in  the  Attorney  General’s  Manual.
+
==Legislative History==
  
==== Source  Note: ====
+
The legislative history of the APA begins with the ''Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure'' (1941). This report led to the introduction in Congress of the so-called majority and minority bills, respectively designated as S. 675 and S. 674, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. These bills, together with S. 918, formed the basis for extensive hearings held in 1941 before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. In 1945, the House Committee on the Judiciary held [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/23/hear-19-1945.pdf brief hearings on various administrative procedure bills], of which H.R. 1203, 79th Cong., was the precursor of the APA as passed. Also in June 1945, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary issued a comparative print with comments, which is an essential part of the legislative history. The committee reports on the APA are [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/03/20/senaterept-752-1945.pdf S. Rep. No. 752] (1945) and [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/06/09/houserept-1980-1946.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 1980] (1946). In October 1945, at the request of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, the Attorney General submitted a letter and attached memorandum that set forth the understanding of the Department of Justice as to the purpose and meaning of the various provisions of the bill (S.7). This letter and memorandum constitute Appendix B of the Senate Committee Report. They also appear as an appendix in the ''Attorney General’s Manual''.
  
The Senate and House debates plus  the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, other than the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee, are compiled in S. Doc. No. 248, 79th  Cong.,  2d  Sess. (1946),  titled  Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46. The Final Report was published as S. Doc. No. 8,  77th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.  (1941). The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act (1947) is a contemporaneous interpretive guide to the original language of the Act  (see  Appendix).  
+
The Senate and House debates and the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, other than the ''Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee'', are compiled in S. Doc. No. 248, [https://coast.noaa.gov/data/Documents/OceanLawSearch/Senate%20Document%20No.%2079-248.pdf Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46] (1946). The Final Report was published as ''S. Doc. No. 8'' (1941). The [http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/AttorneyGeneralsManual.pdf Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act] (1947) is a contemporaneous interpretive guide to the original language of the APA.
  
Individual agencies have adoptedwithin the framework of the APA,  procedural  rules  for the conduct of rulemaking and adjudication. A  list  of  citations  to  these  rules  appears  below. 
+
Individual agencies have adopted procedural rules within the framework of the APA for the conduct of rulemaking and adjudication.
  
For  articles  on  judicial  review  of  agency  action,  see  the  Bibliography  for  Chapter  2,  below.  The comprehensive A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking (5th ed. 2012) discusses the entire rulemaking process. It was published initially by theAdministrative  Conference  and now by the ABA. The  Conference  also published a Manual for Administrative Law Judges (3d ed. 1993).  The  Manualis  a handbook of practice in the conduct of hearings. Persons  interested  in  negotiated  rulemaking  or  ADR  in  APA  adjudication  should  consult  he  separate  ACUS  Sourcebooks  on  these  subjects  and  the  other  materials  listed  in  the  Bibliography  sections  of  those  Sourcebook  chapters. 
+
The comprehensive ''A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking'' (5th ed. 2012) discusses the entire rulemaking process. It was published initially by ACUS and is now published by the ABA. ACUS also published a [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/P1%201993%20Mullins%20ALJ%20Manual%203rd%20ed%20%28CP%2013%29_0.pdf Manual for Administrative Law Judges] (3d ed. 1993), which is a handbook of practice in the conduct of hearings.  
  
The  Administrative  Conference  also  sponsored numerous studies of rulemaking and adjudication proceduresand recommended a variety of improvements in agency practice. Its recommendations appeared in the Federal Register and volume  one  of  the  Code  of  Federal  Regulations.
+
ACUS has sponsored numerous studies of rulemaking and adjudication procedures and recommended a variety of improvements in agency practice. Its recommendations appeared in the ''Federal Register'' and may be found on its [https://www.acus.gov/recommendations website].
  
==References==
+
==Bibliography==
<references />
 
  
=== Bibliography ===
+
===Legislative History and Congressional Documents===
  
==== I. Legislative  History ====
+
*[https://coast.noaa.gov/data/Documents/OceanLawSearch/Senate%20Document%20No.%2079-248.pdf Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46], S. Doc. No. 248 (1946).
  
+
*Administrative Procedure in Government Agencies, S. Doc. No. 8 (1941) (Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure).
# Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative  History  1944-46,  S.  Doc.  No.  248,  79th  Cong.,  2d  Sess.  (1946). 
+
*Report on S. 7, [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/06/09/houserept-1980-1946.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 1980] (1946).
# Administrative  Procedure  in Government Agencies, S. Doc. No. 8,  77th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.  (1941) (Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure).
 
#House  of  Representatives  Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  Report on S. 7, H.R. Rep. No.  1980,  79th  Cong.,  2d  Sess.  (1946),  reprinted  in  S. Doc. No.  248  (item  1,  above)  and  in  Pike  and  Fischer  Administrative  Law  (2d),  Desk  Book  Stat.-51. 
 
# Senate  Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  Report  on  S. 7,  Rep. No. 752,  79th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.  (1945),  reprinted  in  S.  Doc.  No.  248  (item  1,  above)  and  in  Pike  and  Fischer  Administrative  Law  (2d),  Desk  Book,  Stat.-11.
 
  
==== II.  Other  Government  Documents ====
+
*Report on S. 7, [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/03/20/senaterept-752-1945.pdf S. Rep. No. 752] (1945).
# U.S.  Department  of  Justice,  Attorney  General’s  Manual  on the  Administrative  Procedure  Act  (1947),  reprinted  in  Appendix  2  of  this  chapter. 
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg64854/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg64854.pdf APA at 65: Is Reform Needed to Create Jobs, Promote Economic Growth, and Reduce Costs?], Hearing Before Subcomm. on Courts, Commercial and Admin. Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. (2011).
# U.S. Office  of  the  Federal  Register, Document  Drafting  Handbook  (available  online  at  http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/handbook/ddh.pdf).
 
#Administrative  Conference  of  the  United  States,  selected  recommendations  (http://www.acus.gov/recommendations):
 
:::68-1  Adequate  Hearing  Facilities  68-5Representation  of  the  Poor  in  Agency  Rulemaking  of  Direct  Consequence  to  Them
 
:::68-6  Delegation  of  Final  Decisional  Authority  Subject  to  Discretionary  Review  by  the  Agency 
 
:::69-8  Elimination  of  Certain  Exemptions  from  the  APA Rulemaking  Requirements 
 
:::70-3  Summary  Decision  in  Agency  Adjudication 
 
:::70-4  Discovery  in  Agency  Adjudication 
 
:::71-1  Interlocutory  Appeal  Procedures 
 
:::71-3  Articulation  of  Agency  Policies 
 
:::71-6  Public  Participation  in  Administrative  Hearings 
 
:::72-1  Broadcast  of  Agency  Proceedings 
 
:::72-5  Procedures  for  the  Adoption  of  Rules  of  General  Applicability 
 
:::73-5 Elimination  of  the  “Military  or  Foreign  Affairs  Function”Exemption  from  APA  Rulemaking  Requirements 
 
:::73-6 Procedures  for  Resolution  of  Environmental  Issues  in  Licensing  Proceedings 
 
:::74-1  Subpoena  Power  in  Formal  Rulemaking  and  Formal  Adjudication 
 
:::76-2  Strengthening  the  Informational  and  Notice-Giving  Functions  of  the  “Federal  Register”76-3Procedures  in  Addition  to Notice  and the  Opportunity  for  Comment  in  Informal  Rulemaking 
 
:::76-5  Interpretive  Rules  of  General  Applicability  and  Statements  of  General  Policy 
 
:::77-3  Ex  parte  Communications  in  Informal  Rulemaking  Proceedings 
 
:::78-3  Time  Limits  on Agency  Actions 
 
:::79-l  Hybrid  Rulemaking  Procedures  of  the  Federal  Trade  Commission 
 
:::79-4  Public  Disclosure  Concerning  the  Use  of  Cost—Benefit  and Similar  Analyses  in  Regulation 
 
:::80-4  Decisional  Officials’  Participation  in  Rulemaking  Proceedings 
 
:::80-6  Intragovernmental  Communications  in  Informal  Rulemaking  Proceedings 
 
:::82-4  Procedures  for  Negotiating  Proposed  Regulations 
 
:::83-2  The  “Good  Cause”  Exemption  from  APA  Rulemaking  Requirements 
 
:::83-3  Agency  Structures  for  Review  of Decisions  of  Presiding  Officers  under  the Administrative  Procedure  Act 
 
:::85-2  Agency  Procedures  for  Performing  Regulatory  Analysis  of  Rules 
 
:::85-5  Procedures  for  Negotiating  Proposed  Regulations 
 
:::86-2  Use  of  Federal  Rules  of  Evidence  in  Federal  Agency  Adjudications 
 
:::86-6  Petitions  for  Rulemaking 
 
:::87-1  Priority  Setting  and  Management  of  Rulemaking  by  the Occupational  Safety  and  Health  Administration 
 
:::88-7  Valuation  of  Human  Life  in  Regulatory  Decision  making 
 
:::88-9  Presidential  Review  of  Agency  Rulemaking 
 
:::90-8  Rulemaking  and  Policymaking  in  the  Medicaid  Program 
 
:::92-2  Agency  Policy  Statements 
 
:::93-4  Improving  the  Environment  for  Agency  Rulemaking 
 
:::95-3  Review  of  Existing  Agency  Regulations 
 
:::95-4  Procedures  for  Noncontroversial  and  Expedited  Rulemaking 
 
:::2011-1 Legal  Considerations  in  e-Rulemaking 
 
:::2011-2 Rulemaking  Comments 
 
:::2011-4 Agency  Use  of  Video  Hearings:  Best  Practices  and  Possibilities  for  Expansion 
 
:::2011-5 Incorporation  by  Reference 
 
:::2011-8  Agency  Innovations  in  E-Rulemaking 
 
:::2012-1 Regulatory  Analysis  Requirements 
 
:::2012-2 Midnight  Rules 
 
:::2013-2  Benefit-Cost  Analysis 
 
:::2013-4 Administrative  Record  in  Informal  Rulemaking 
 
:::2013-5 Social  Media  in  Rulemaking 
 
:::2014-3 Guidance  in  the  Rulemaking  Process 
 
:::2014-4 “Ex  Parte”  Communications  in  Informal  Rulemaking 
 
:::2014-6  Petitions  for  Rulemaking  2015-3  Declaratory  Orders
 
  
==== III.  Other  Resources ====
+
===ACUS Recommendations===
 +
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 +
*68-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/68-1.no-FR.pdf Adequate Hearing Facilities]
 +
*68-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/68-5-ss.pdf Representation of the Poor in Agency Rulemaking of Direct Consequence to Them]
 +
*68-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/68-6.pdf Delegation of Final Decisional Authority Subject to Discretionary Review by the Agency]
 +
*69-8 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/69-8.pdf Elimination of Certain Exemptions from the APA Rulemaking Requirements]
 +
*70-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/70-3.pdf Summary Decision in Agency Adjudication]
 +
*70-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/70-4.pdf Discovery in Agency Adjudication]
 +
*71-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/71-1.pdf Interlocutory Appeal Procedures]
 +
*71-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/71-3.pdf Articulation of Agency Policies]
 +
*71-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/71-6-ss.pdf Public Participation in Administrative Hearings]
 +
*72-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/72-1-ss.pdf Broadcast of Agency Proceedings]
 +
*72-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/72-5.pdf Procedures for the Adoption of Rules of General Applicability]
 +
*73-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/73-5.pdf Elimination of the “Military or Foreign Affairs Function” Exemption from APA Rulemaking Requirements]
 +
*73-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/73-6-ss.pdf Procedures for Resolution of Environmental Issues in Licensing Proceedings]
 +
*74-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/74-11.pdf Subpoena Power in Formal Rulemaking and Formal Adjudication]
 +
*76-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/76-2.pdf Strengthening the Informational and Notice-Giving Functions of the “Federal Register”]
 +
*76-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/76-3.pdf Procedures in Addition to Notice and the Opportunity for Comment in Informal Rulemaking]
 +
*76-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/76-5.pdf Interpretive Rules of General Applicability and Statements of General Policy]
 +
*77-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/77-3.pdf Ex parte Communications in Informal Rulemaking Proceedings]
 +
*78-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/78-3.pdf Time Limits on Agency Actions]
 +
*79-l [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/79-1-with-table.pdf Hybrid Rulemaking Procedures of the Federal Trade Commission]
 +
*79-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/79-4.pdf Public Disclosure Concerning the Use of Cost-Benefit and Similar Analyses in Regulation]
 +
*80-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/80-4.pdf Decisional Officials’ Participation in Rulemaking Proceedings]
 +
*80-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/80-6-ss.pdf Intragovernmental Communications in Informal Rulemaking Proceedings]
 +
*82-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/82-4.pdf Procedures for Negotiating Proposed Regulations]
 +
*83-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/83-2.pdf The “Good Cause” Exemption from APA Rulemaking Requirements]
 +
*85-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/85-5.pdf Procedures for Negotiating Proposed Regulations]
 +
*86-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/86-2.pdf Use of Federal Rules of Evidence in Federal Agency Adjudications]
 +
*86-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/86-6.pdf Petitions for Rulemaking]
 +
*87-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/87-1.pdf Priority Setting and Management of Rulemaking by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration]
 +
*88-7 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/88-7.pdf Valuation of Human Life in Regulatory Decisionmaking]
 +
*88-9 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/88-9.pdf Presidential Review of Agency Rulemaking]
 +
*90-8 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/90-8.pdf Rulemaking and Policymaking in the Medicaid Program]
 +
*92-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/92-2.pdf Agency Policy Statements]
 +
*93-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/93-4.pdf Improving the Environment for Agency Rulemaking]
 +
*95-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/95-3.pdf Review of Existing Agency Regulations]
 +
*95-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/95-4.pdf Procedures for Noncontroversial and Expedited Rulemaking]
 +
*2011-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation-2011-1-Legal-Considerations-in-e-Rulemaking.pdf Legal Considerations in e-Rulemaking]
 +
*2011-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation-2011-2-Rulemaking-Comments.pdf Rulemaking Comments]
 +
*2011-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202011-4%20%28Video%20Hearings%29.pdf Agency Use of Video Hearings: Best Practices and Possibilities for Expansion]
 +
*2011-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/Recommendation-2011-5-Incorporation-by-Reference.pdf Incorporation by Reference]
 +
*2011-8 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/Recommendation-2011-8-E-Rulemaking-Innovations.pdf Agency Innovations in E-Rulemaking]
 +
*2012-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final-Recommendation-2012-1-Regulatory-Analysis.pdf Regulatory Analysis Requirements]
 +
*2012-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/Final-Recommendation-2012-2-Midnight-Rules.pdf Midnight Rules]
 +
*2013-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202013-2%20%28Benefit-Cost%20Analysis%29_0.pdf Benefit-Cost Analysis at Independent Regulatory Agencies]
 +
*2013-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Administrative%20Record%20_%20Final%20Recommendation%20_%20Approved_0.pdf Administrative Record in Informal Rulemaking]
 +
*2013-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Social%20Media%20Rec_Final_12_9_13.pdf Social Media in Rulemaking]
 +
*2014-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202014-3%20%28Guidance%20in%20Rulemaking%20Process%29_0.pdf Guidance in the Rulemaking Process]
 +
*2014-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202014-4%20%28Ex%20Parte%29_0.pdf “Ex Parte” Communications in Informal Rulemaking]
 +
*2014-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final%20Petitions%20for%20Rulemaking%20Recommendation%20%5B12-9-14%5D.pdf Petitions for Rulemaking]
 +
*2015-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/declaratory-orders-final-recommendation.pdf Declaratory Orders]
 +
*2017-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-2_Negotiated%20Rulemaking.pdf Negotiated Rulemaking and Other Options for Public Engagement]
 +
*2017-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-3%20%28Plain%20Language%20in%20Regulatory%20Drafting%29.pdf Plain Language in Regulatory Drafting]
 +
*2017-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-5%20%28Agency%20Guidance%20Through%20Policy%20Statements%29_2.pdf Agency Guidance Through Policy Statements]
 +
*2017-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-6%20%28Learning%20from%20Regulatory%20Experience%29_0.pdf Learning Through Regulatory Experience]
 +
*2017-7 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-7%20%28Regulatory%20Waivers%20and%20Exemptions%29_0.pdf Regulatory Waivers and Exemptions]
 +
*2018-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/recommendation-2018-2-severability%20in%20agency%20rulemaking.pdf Severability in Agency Rulemaking]
 +
*2018-7 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202018-7%20%28Public%20Engagement%20in%20Rulemaking%29.pdf Public Engagement in Rulemaking]
 +
*2019-1 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/agency-guidance-through-interpretive-rules Agency Guidance Through Interpretive Rules]
 +
*2019-2 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/agency-recruitment-and-selection-administrative-law-judges Agency Recruitment and Selection of Administrative Law Judges]
 +
*2020-1 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/rules-rulemakings Rules on Rulemakings]
 +
*2021-1 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/managing-mass-computer-generated-and-falsely-attributed-comments Managing Mass, Computer-Generated, and Falsely Attributed Comments]
 +
*2021-5 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/clarifying-statutory-access-judicial-review-agency-action Clarifying Statutory Access to Judicial Review of Agency Action]
 +
</div>
  
+
===Other Government Documents===
===== a. Books =====
 
  
# Alfred  C.  Aman  &  William  T.  Mayton, HORNBOOKON  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW  (West  Academic  Publishing,  3d  ed. 2014).
+
*Dep’t of Justice, [http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/AttorneyGeneralsManual.pdf Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act] (1947).
# Michael  Herz,  Richard  Murphy  &  Kathryn  Watts  eds.,  A  GUIDETOJUDICIALAND  POLITICAL  REVIEWOF  FEDERAL  AGENCIES,  2DED. (Am.  Bar.  Ass’n  2015).
+
*Office of the Fed. Register, [https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/write/handbook/ddh.pdf Document Drafting Handbook].
# William  F. Fox, UNDERSTANDING  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW  (LexisNexis,  6th  ed.  2012). 
+
*Cong. Research Serv., [https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/IF10003.pdf An Overview of Federal Regulations and the Rulemaking Process] (2019).
# William  Funk  &  Richard  Seamon,  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW: EXAMPLES  &  EXPLANATIONS  (Aspen  Publishers,  5th  ed. 2015).
+
*Office of the Deputy Attorney General, U.S. Dept. of Justice, [https://www.justice.gov/archives/dag/file/1302321/download Modernizing the Administrative Proecedure Act] (2020).
# Ernest  Gellhorn  &  Ronald  Levin,  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAWAND  PROCESSIN  A  NUTSHELL  (West  Nutshell  Series,  5th  ed. 2006).
 
# Jeffrey  Litwak  ed.,  A  GUIDETO  FEDERAL  AGENCY  ADJUDICATION,  2DED. (Am.  Bar.  Ass’n  2014). 
 
# Jeffrey  S.  Lubbers, A  GUIDETO  FEDERAL  AGENCY  RULEMAKING  (Am. Bar  Ass’n,  5th  ed. 2012). 
 
# Richard  J.  Pierce,  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW  TREATISE(Aspen  Publishers,  5th  ed.  2009).
 
# Richard  J.  Pierce, Sidney  A. Shapiro  &  Paul  R. Verkuil,ADMINISTRATIVE  LAWAND  PROCESS(Foundation  Press,  5th  ed.  2009).
 
# Thomas  O.  Sargentich  ed., ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW  ANTHOLOGY  (1994,  Anderson  Publishing  Co.  [now  Lexis-Nexis]). 
 
# Peter  H.  Schuck,  FOUNDATIONSOF  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW(3d  ed.)  (2012  LexisNexis). 
 
# Peter  Strauss  ed.,  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW  STORIES  (Foundation  Press  2006).
 
# Peter  L. Strauss,  AN  INTRODUCTIONTO  ADMINISTRATIVE  JUSTICEINTHE  UNITED  STATES  (Carolina  Academic  Press,  2d  revision,  2002). 
 
# Section  of  Administrative Law  and  Regulatory  Practice,  A  BLACKLETTERSTATEMENTOF  FEDERAL  ADMINISTRATIVE  LAW  (2d  ed.)  (ABA  2013)  (1st  ed.  originally  published  at  54  Admin.  L.  Rev.  1  (2002)).
 
  
===== b.  Periodicals  (aside  from  law  reviews  generally) =====
+
===Other Resources===
  
# Administrative Law Review (published  by  Washington  College  of  Law  at  American  University  and  the  ABA Section  on  Administrative Law and  Regulatory  Practice)  (Website:  http://www.wcl.american.edu/pub/journals/alr/).  
+
====Books====
# Administrative & Regulatory  Law  News  (quarterly  newsletter  of  ABA  Section  on  Administrative  Lawand  Regulatory  Practice)  (also  available  from  1996  online  at  http://www.abanet.org/adminlaw/news).  
+
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
# Developments  in  Administrative Law and Regulatory  Practice  (Annual  series  beginning  1998-99  and  continuing  to 2014) (Jeffrey Lubbers ed., ABA, Section  of  Administrative Law and Regulatory  Practice).
+
*Alfred C. Aman & William T. Mayton, ''Hornbook on Administrative Law'' (West Acad. Publ’g, 3d ed. 2014).
# Bloomberg  BNA, Administrative Law,  Third  Series:  A  multivolume  loose-leaf  service, updated  monthly. The  Desk  Book  includes  coverage  of key  statutes, legislative  history, implementation  memoranda, and  agency  rules;  the Digest  system  organizes  administrative  law  into  14  major  topics  (e.g., Costs  and  Fees,  Judicial  Review, Rulemaking),  with  multiple  subtopics  for  each;  and  the  Decisions  volumes  report  significant  federal  court  and  agency  decisions  on  administrative  procedure  and  judicial  review. Digests  of  salient  points  of law  are  placed  under  the  appropriate  subtopics  for  easy  retrieval. A 12-page  newsletter, the  AdLaw  Bulletin,  containing  case  highlights  and  stories  on  agency  and  legislative  developments,  accompanies  each  monthly  release  and  is  kept  in  separate  binder. The  Bulletin  also  contains  practice-oriented  articles  by  outside  experts  on  hot  topics.
+
*Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts eds''.'', ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' (ABA, 2d ed. 2015).
 +
*William F. Fox, ''Understanding Administrative Law'' (LexisNexis, 6th ed. 2012).
 +
*William Funk & Richard Seamon, ''Administrative Law: Examples & Explanations'' (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2015).
 +
*Ronald Levin & Jeffrey S. Lubbers, ''Administrative Law and Process in a Nutshell'' (West Nutshell Series, 6th ed. 2017).
 +
*Jeffrey Litwak ed., ''A Guide to Federal Agency Adjudication'' (ABA, 2d ed. 2014).
 +
*Jeffrey S. Lubbers, ''A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking'' (ABA, 6th ed. 2018).
 +
*Richard J. Pierce, ''Administrative Law Treatise'' (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2009).
 +
*Richard J. Pierce, Sidney A. Shapiro & Paul R. Verkuil, ''Administrative Law and Process'' (Found. Press, 5th ed. 2009).
 +
*Thomas O. Sargentich ed., ''Administrative Law Anthology'' (Anderson Publ’g Co. [now Lexis-Nexis], 1994).
 +
*Peter H. Schuck, ''Foundations of Administrative Law'' (LexisNexis, 3d ed. 2012).
 +
*Peter Strauss ed., ''Administrative Law Stories'' (Found. Press, 2006).
 +
*Peter L. Strauss, ''An Introduction to Administrative Justice in the United States'' (Carolina Acad. Press, 2d revision, 2002).
 +
*ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, ''A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law'' (ABA, 2d ed. 2013) (1st ed. published at 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1 (2002)).
 +
</div>
  
===== c.  Selected  Articles  and  Other  Documents =====
+
====Periodicals (aside from law reviews generally)====
  
# Michael  Asimow,  Interim-Final  Rules: Making  Haste  Slowly,  51  Admin.  L.  Rev.  703  (1999). 
+
*[http://www.administrativelawreview.org/ Administrative Law Review] (published by American University Washington College of Law and the ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice)
# Kent  Barnett,  Resolving  the  ALJ  Quandary,  66  Vand.  L.  Rev.  797  (2013). 
 
# Beck  &  Leland,  Agency  Practices  and  Judicial  Review  of  Administrative  Records  in  Informal  Rulemaking  (May  14,  2013),  available  at www.acus.gov/report/agency-practices-and-judicial-review-administrativerecords-informal-rulemaking. 
 
# Eric  Biber  &  J.B.  Ruhl,  The  Permit  Power  Revisited:  The  Theory  and  Practice  of  Regulatory  Permits  in  the  Administrative State,  54  Duke  L.  J.  (2014). 
 
# Barbara  Brandon  &  Robert  Carlitz,  Online  Rulemaking  and  Other  Tools  for  Strengthening  Our  Civil  Infrastructure,  54  Admin.  L.  Rev.  1421  (2002). 
 
# Daniel  A.  Farber  &  Anne  Joseph  O’Connell,  The  Lost  World  of Administrative  Law,  92  Tex.  L.  Rev.  1137  (2014). 
 
# Cynthia  R.  Farina,  Mary  Newhart,  Josiah  Heidt  &  CeRI,  Rulemaking  vs.  Democracy:  Judging  and  Nudging  Public  Participation  That  Counts,  2  Mich.  J.  Envtl.  &  Admin.  L.  123  (2012). 
 
# David  L.  Franklin,  Legislative  Rules,  Nonlegislative  Rules,  and the Perils  of the  Short  Cut,  120  Yale  L.  J.  276  (2010). 
 
# William  Funk,  When  Is  a  “Rule”  a  Regulation?  Marking  a  Clear  Line  Between  Nonlegislative  Rules  and  Legislative  Rules,  54  Admin. L.  Rev.  659  (2002). 
 
# Elena  Kagan,  Presidential  Administration,  114  Harv.  L.  Rev.  2245  (2001). 
 
# Jeffrey  S.  Lubbers,  APA  Adjudication:  Is  the  Quest  for  Uniformity  Faltering?  10  Admin.  L.  J.  Am.  U.  65  (1996). 
 
# Jeffrey  Lubbers,  The  Transformation  of  the  U.S.  Rulemaking  Process—For  Better  or  Worse,  34  Ohio  N.  Univ.  L.  Rev.  469  (2008). 
 
# Jeffrey  Lubbers  &  Blake  Morant,  A  Reexamination  of  Federal  Agency  Use  of  Declaratory  Orders,  56  Admin.  L.  Rev.  1097  (2004). 
 
# Elizabeth  Magill,  Agency  Choice  of  Policymaking  Form,  71  U.  Chi.  L.  Rev.  1383  (2004). 
 
# John  Manning,  Nonlegislative  Rules,  72  Geo.  Wash.  L.  Rev.  893  (2004). 
 
# Nina  A.  Mendelson,  Should  Mass  Comments  Count?,  2  Mich.  J.  Envtl.  &  Admin.  L.  173  (2012). 
 
# Thomas  Merrill  &  Kathryn  Watts,  Agency  Rules  with  the  Force  of  Law:  The  Original  Convention,  116  Harv.  L.  Rev.  467  (2002). 
 
# Beth  Simone  Noveck,  The  Electronic  Revolution  in  Rulemaking,  53  Emory  L.J.  433  (2004). 
 
# Edward  Rubin,  It’s  Time  to  Make  the  Administrative  Procedure  Act  Administrative,  89  Cornell  L.  Rev.  95  (2003). 
 
# Reuel  Schiller,  Rulemaking’s  Promise:  Administrative  Law and  Legal  Culture  in  the  1960s  and  1970s,  53  Admin.  L.  Rev.  1139  (2001). 
 
# Jason  A.  Schwartz  &  Richard  L.  Revesz,  Petitions  for  Rulemaking  (Nov.  5,  2014),  available  at  www.acus.gov/report/petitions-rulemaking-final-report.
 
# Esa  Sferra-Bonistalli,  “Ex  Parte”  Communications  in  InformalRulemaking  (May  1,  2014),  available  at  www.acus.gov/report/final-ex-partecommunications-report. 
 
# Sidney  Shapiro,  Elizabeth  Fisher  & Wendy  Wagner,  The  Enlightenment  of  Administrative  Law:  Looking  Inside  the  Agency  for  Legitimacy,  47  Wake  Forest  L.  Rev.  463  (2012). 
 
# George  Shepherd,  The  Administrative  Procedure  Act  Emerges  from  New  Deal  Politics,  90  Nw.  L.  Rev.  1557  (1996). 
 
# Kevin  Stack,  Guidance  in  the  Rulemaking  Process:  Evaluating  Preambles,  Regulatory Text,  and  Freestanding  Documents  as  Vehicles  for  Regulatory  Guidance  (Jun.  10,  2014),  available  at  www.acus.gov/report/ final-guidance-rulemaking-process-evaluating-preambles-regulatory-text-andfreestanding. 
 
# Wendy  Wagner,  The  Participation-Centered  ModelMeets  Administrative  Process,  2013  Wis.  L.  Rev.  671.
 
  
===== d. Web  Addresses  of Note =====
+
*[https://www.americanbar.org/groups/administrative_law/publications/administrativeandregulatorylawnews.html Administrative & Regulatory Law News] (quarterly newsletter of the ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice)
  
# Overview  of  Federal  Administrative Law.  D.C.  Law  Librarians’  Society  compilation.  http://www.llsdc.org/federal-administrative-law-a-brief-overview 
+
*''Developments in Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice'' (Annual series beginning 1998-99 and continuing to 2014) (Jeffrey Lubbers ed., ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice).
# ABA  Administrative  Procedure  Database.  Developed  and  maintainedwith  the  cooperation  and  support  of  the  American  Bar  Association’s  Section  of  Administrative  Law  and Regulatory Practice and  the  Florida  State  University  College  of  Law.  Contains  links  to  federal  agency  home  pages,  state  resources,  historical  materials  (such  as  Attorney  General’s  Manualon  the  APA),  and  other  useful  links.  www.law.fsu.edu/library/admin/
 
# Administrative  Conference  of  the  United  States.  Contains  links  to  past  (1968-95)  and current  activities. https://www.acus.gov
 
# Congress, www.Congress.gov
 
# Government  Accountability  Office  (GAO)  Reports. http://www.gao.gov 
 
# Government  Printing  Office.  Lots  of  official  gov’t  documents. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/
 
# LSU’s  government  website.  A  complete  link  to federal  agencies  andsubunits  from  all  three  branches.  http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/index.html
 
# National  Partnership  for  Reinventing  Government  (the  Clinton  “Reinventing  Government  Initiative”).  Archived  at http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/index.htm
 
# Office  of  the  Federal  Register.  Contains  (searchable)  Federal  Register(1994  forward),  Code  of  Federal  Regulations,  Semiannual  Regulatory  Agenda,  Public  Laws  (1994  forward),  U.S. Government  Manual  (1995  forward), Weekly  Compilation  of Presidential  Docs. (1993  forward).  http:// www.archives.gov/federal-register
 
# Regulations.Gov.  The  federal  government’s  “one-stop  shop”  for  filing  comments  in  rulemaking.  www.regulations.gov
 
# Regulatory Information  Service  Center  (Unified  Agenda  of  Regs.—1995-present). www.reginfo.gov
 
# SBA  Office  of  Advocacy.  Lots  of  useful  links. www.sba.gov/advo
 
# The  Regulatory  Group,  Inc.  Useful  links  from  a  private  consultingfirm.  www.reg-group.com
 
# The  Center  for  Regulatory  Effectiveness, http://thecre.com/.  Business-oriented  group  site  with  a  wealth  of  useful  information  on  regulation,  especially  the  Data  Quality  Act.  Has  extensive  archive  of  “Inside  Administration”  papers  at http://www.thecre.com/ombpapers/centralrev.html.
 
# U.S.  Court  of  Appeals  for  the  D.C.  Circuit. http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/home.nsf
 
# U.S.  House  of  Representatives  Internet  Law  Library—U.S.  Code(searchable  form).  http://uscode.house.gov/search/criteria.shtml
 
# U.S.  Office  of  Government  Ethics  (regulations, opinions),www.usoge.gov
 
# U.S.  Supreme  Court. www.supremecourtus.gov/index.html
 
# University  of  Virginia  School  of  Law  Federal  Administrative  Decisions  and  Actions  Page.  Contains  links  to  the  various  administrative  actions  that  fall  outside  the  scope  of  the  Code  of  Federal  Regulations  or  Federal  Register. http://www2.lib.virginia.edu/govtinfo/fed_decisions_agency.html
 
# USA.gov.  The  federal  government’s  comprehensive  portal  for  government  documents. www.usa.gov
 
  
==== Agency  Procedural  Rules ====
+
*Bloomberg BNA, ''Administrative Law, Third Series'': A multivolume loose-leaf service, updated monthly. The ''Desk Book'' includes coverage of key statutes, legislative history, implementation memoranda, and agency rules; the ''Digest'' system organizes administrative law into 14 major topics (e.g., Costs and Fees, Judicial Review, Rulemaking), with multiple subtopics for each; and the ''Decisions'' volumes report significant federal court and agency decisions on administrative procedure and judicial review. Digests of salient points of law are placed under the appropriate subtopics for easy retrieval. A 12-page newsletter, the ''AdLaw Bulletin'', containing case highlights and stories on agency and legislative developments, accompanies each monthly release and is kept in separate binder. The ''Bulletin'' also contains practice-oriented articles by outside experts on hot topics.
  
::Agriculture  .  .  .  .  7  C.F.R.  §§  1.27-.28,  1.130-.160,  Parts  47,  50,  202,  900   
+
====Selected Articles and Other Documents====
::Architectural  and Transportation  Barriers  Compliance  Board  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  36  C.F.R. 
+
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
::Part  1150  Coast  Guard  (Homeland  Security)  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  33  C.F.R.  Part  20,  46  C.F.R.  §§  5.501-.807 
+
*Michael Asimow, ''Interim-Final Rules: Making Haste Slowly'', 51 Admin. L. Rev. 703 (1999).
::Commerce  National  Oceanic  and  Atmospheric  Admin  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .15  C.F.R.  ::Part  904  (Subpt.  C) 
 
::Commodity  Futures  Trading  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  17  C.F.R.  Parts  10,  12,  13   
 
::Consumer  Product  Safety  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  16  C.F.R.  Parts  1025,  1051,  1052   
 
::Environmental  Protection  Agency  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  40  C.F.R.  Parts  22,  24,  25,  104,  108,  164,  209   
 
::Federal  Communications  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  47  C.F.R.  Part  1   
 
::Federal  Deposit  Insurance  Corporation  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  12  C.F.R.  Part  308   
 
::Federal  Emergency  Management  Agency  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  44  C.F.R.  Parts  1,  68   
 
::Federal  Energy  Regulatory  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  18  C.F.R.  Part  385   
 
::Federal  Labor  Relations  Authority  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  5  C.F.R.  Parts  2422,  2423   
 
::Federal  Maritime  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  46  C.F.R.  Part  502   
 
::Federal  Mine  Safety  and  Health  Review  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  C.F.R.  Part  2700 
 
::Federal  Reserve  Board  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  12  C.F.R.  Parts  262,  263   
 
::Federal  Trade  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  16  C.F.R.  §§  1.7-.26,  Part  3,  §§  4.7 
 
::Health  and  Human  Services  Centers  for  Medicare  and  Medicaid  Services  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  42  C.F.R.  Part  402,  Part  405,  Subpts.  H  &  I 
 
::Food  and  Drug  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  21  C.F.R.  Parts  10-17
 
::Housing  and  Urban  Development  .  .  .  .  .  .  24  C.F.R.  Part  26,  §§  3282.152; 12  C.F.R.  Parts  1007,  1008,  1024 
 
::Interior  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  43  C.F.R.  Part  4;  50  C.F.R.  Part  11   
 
::International  Trade  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  19  C.F.R.  Part  210   
 
::Justice  Drug  Enforcement  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .21  C.F.R.  §§  1301.41-.46,  §§  1303.31-.37,  §§  1308.41-.45,  §§  1309.51-.55,  §§  1312.41-.47,  §§  1313.51-.57,  §§  1316.41-.68   
 
::Newspaper  Preservation  Act  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  28  C.F.R.  §§  48.10   
 
::Labor  Black  Lung  Benefits  Cases  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  20  C.F.R.  §§  725.350-.483   
 
::Longshoremen’s  and  Harbor  Workers’Compensation  Cases  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  20  C.F.R.  §§  702.301-.394   
 
::Office  of  Federal  Contract  Compliance  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  41  C.F.R.  §§  60-1.21-.26, Part  60-30 
 
::Other  Cases  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  C.F.R.  Parts  6, 8   
 
::Merit  Systems  Protection  Board  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  5  C.F.R.  Parts  1201,  1203,  1209   
 
::National  Credit  Union  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  12  C.F.R.  Part  747 
 
::National  Labor  Relations  Board  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  C.F.R. Parts  101,  102 
 
::National  Transportation  Safety  Board  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  49  C.F.R.  Part  821 
 
::Nuclear  Regulatory  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  10  C.F.R.  Part  2   
 
::Occupational  Safety  and  Health  Administration  (Labor) .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  C.F.R.  Parts  1905,  1911 
 
::Occupational  Safety  and  Health  Review  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  C.F.R.  Part  2200 
 
::Postal  Regulatory  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  39  C.F.R.  Part  3001,  Subpt. 
 
::A    Postal  Service  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  39  C.F.R.  Parts  912-966   
 
::Securities  and  Exchange  Commission  .  .  .  .  .  17  C.F.R.  Part  201,  Subpt.  D   
 
::Small  Business  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  13  C.F.R.  Parts  101.9,  134,  142 
 
::Social  Security  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  20  C.F.R.  §§  404.900-.996,  §§  416.1400-.1494;  42  C.F.R.  §§  405.900-405.1140,  §§  405.1801-.1889 
 
::State  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  22  C.F.R.  Part  128   
 
::Surface  Transportation  Board  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  49  C.F.R.  Parts  1110-1119   
 
::Transportation  Federal  Aviation  Administration  14  C.F.R.  Part  11,  Part  13,  Subpt.  D   
 
::Federal  Highway  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  49  C.F.R.  Parts  386,  389 
 
::Maritime  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  46  C.F.R.  Part  201   
 
::National  Highway  Traffic  Safety  Administration  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  49  C.F.R.  Parts  511,  553   
 
::Office  of  the  Secretary  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  14  C.F.R.  Part  302;  49  C.F.R.  Part  5   
 
::Pipeline  and  Hazardous  Materials  SafetyAdministration...  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  9  C.F.R.  Part  106,  Part  107,  Subpt.  D   
 
Treasury 
 
::Alcohol  and  Tobacco  Tax  and  Trade  Bureau  .  .  .  .  .  .  27  C.F.R  Part  71   
 
::Comptroller  of  the  Currency  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  12  C.F.R.  Part  19   
 
::Internal  Revenue  Service  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  26  C.F.R.  Part  601;  31  C.F.R.  §§  10.60-.82
 
  
'''Appendix:'''
+
*Kent Barnett, [https://www.vanderbiltlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2013/04/Barnett_66_Vand_L_Rev_797.pdf Resolving the ALJ Quandary], 66 Vand. L. Rev. 797 (2013).
# Administrative  Procedure  Act,  5  U.S.C. §§  551,  553–59, 701–06,1305,  3105,  3344,  5372,  7521.
 
# U.S. Department  of  Justice,  Attorney  General’s  Manual  on  the  Administrative  Procedure  Act  (1947).
 
  
'''Administrative Procedure  Act'''
+
*Leland E. Beck, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Agency%20Practices%20and%20Judicial%20Review%20of%20Administrative%20Records%20in%20Informal%20Rulemaking.pdf Agency Practices and Judicial Review of Administrative Records in Informal Rulemaking] (May 14, 2013) (report to ACUS).
'''Title  V, U. S. Code'''
+
*Jack M. Beermann & Jennifer L. Mascott, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Submitted%20final%20draft%20JB.pdf Research Report on Federal Agency ALJ Hiring after Lucia and Executive Order 13843] (May 29, 2019) (report to ACUS).
'''Chapter  5—Administrative  Procedure'''
 
  
::§ 551. Definitions
+
*Eric Biber & J. B. Ruhl, [https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3780&context=dlj The Permit Power Revisited: The Theory and Practice of Regulatory Permits in the Administrative State], 54 Duke L.J. 133 (2014).
::§ 552. Public information; agency rules, opinions, orders, records, and proceedings
+
 
::§ 552a. Records about individuals
+
*Barbara Brandon & Robert Carlitz, [https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/Conferences/rpp_rulemaking/Brandon-Carlitz_Online_Rulemaking.pdf Online Rulemaking and Other Tools for Strengthening Our Civil Infrastructure], 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1421 (2002).
::§ 552b. Open meetings
+
 
::§ 553. Rule making
+
*Emily S. Bremer, [https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/85770/OSLJ_V78N5_1169.pdf The Agency Declaratory Judgment], 78 Ohio St. L.J. 1169 (2017).
::§ 554. Adjudications
+
*Cary Coglianese & David Lehr, [https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2736&context=faculty_scholarship Regulating by Robot: Administrative Decision Making in the Machine-Learning Era], 105 Geo. L.J. 1147 (2017).
::§ 555. Ancillary matters
+
 
::§ 556. Hearings; presiding employees; powers and duties; burden of proof; evidence; record as basis of decision
+
*Roni A. Elias, [https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1732&context=elr The Legislative History of the Administrative Procedure Act], 27 Fordham Envtl. L. Rev. 207 (2016).
::§ 557. Initial decisions; conclusiveness; review by agency; submissions byparties; contents of decisions; record
+
*Blake Emerson & Ronald M. Levin, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ACUS%20IR%20final%20report.5.28.2019.pdf Agency Guidance Through Interpretive Rules: Research and Analysis] (May 28, 2019) (report to ACUS).
::§ 558. Imposition of sanctions; determination of applications for licenses; suspension, revocation, and expiration of licenses
+
 
::§ 559. Effect on other laws; effect of subsequent statute
+
*Daniel A. Farber & Anne Joseph O’Connell, [https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3273&context=facpubs The Lost World of Administrative Law], 92 Tex. L. Rev. 1137 (2014).
::§ 1305. Administrative law judges  
+
 
::§ 3105. Appointment of administrative law judges  
+
*Cynthia R. Farina, Mary Newhart, Josiah Heidt & CeRI, [https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=ceri Rulemaking vs. Democracy: Judging and Nudging Public Participation That Counts], 2 Mich. J. Envtl. & Admin. L. 123 (2012).
::§ 3344. Details; administrative law judges  
+
 
::§ 5372. Administrative law judges
+
*David L. Franklin, [https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=5233&context=ylj Legislative Rules, Nonlegislative Rules, and the Perils of the Short Cut], 120 Yale L.J. 276 (2010).
::§ 7521. Actions against administrative law judges
+
 
 +
*William Funk, [http://www.pennstatelawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Funk-article.pdf Slip Slidin’ Away: The Erosion of APA Adjudication], 122 Penn. St. L. Rev. 141 (2017).
 +
 
 +
*William Funk, ''When Is a “Rule” a Regulation? Marking a Clear Line Between Nonlegislative Rules and Legislative Rules'', 54 Admin. L. Rev. 659 (2002).
 +
 
 +
*Elena Kagan, [http://cdn.harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/vol114_kagan.pdf Presidential Administration], 114 Harv. L. Rev. 2245 (2001).
 +
*Ronald Levin, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1995-04%20Pt.2%20Procedures%20for%20Noncontroversial%20and%20Expedited%20Rulemaking.pdf Direct Final Rulemaking], 64 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1 (1995) (report to ACUS).
 +
 
 +
*Jeffrey S. Lubbers, ''APA Adjudication: Is the Quest for Uniformity Faltering?'', 10 Admin. L. J. Am. U. 65 (1996).
 +
 
 +
*Jeffrey Lubbers, ''The Transformation of the U.S. Rulemaking Process—For Better or Worse'', 34 Ohio N. Univ. L. Rev. 469 (2008).
 +
 
 +
*Jeffrey Lubbers & Blake Morant, ''A Reexamination of Federal Agency Use of Declaratory Orders'', 56 Admin. L. Rev. 1097 (2004).
 +
 
 +
*M. Elizabeth Magill, [https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5270&context=uclrev Agency Choice of Policymaking Form], 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1383 (2004).
 +
 
 +
*John Manning, ''Nonlegislative Rules'', 72 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 893 (2004).
 +
 
 +
*Nina A. Mendelson, [https://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.bing.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1649&context=articles Should Mass Comments Count?], 2 Mich. J. Envtl. & Admin. L. 173 (2012).
 +
 
 +
*Thomas Merrill & Kathryn Watts, ''Agency Rules with the Force of Law: The Original Convention'', 116 Harv. L. Rev. 467 (2002).
 +
 
 +
*Beth Simone Noveck, [https://digitalcommons.nyls.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1781&context=fac_articles_chapters The Electronic Revolution in Rulemaking], 53 Emory L. J. 433 (2004).
 +
 
 +
*Elizabeth G. Porter & Kathryn A. Watts, [https://www.nyulawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/NYULawReview-91-5-PorterWatts_0.pdf Visual Rulemaking], 91 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1183 (2016).
 +
 
 +
*Edward Rubin, [https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2940&context=clr It’s Time to Make the Administrative Procedure Act Administrative], 89 Cornell L. Rev. 95 (2003).
 +
 
 +
*Michael Sant’Ambrogio & Glen Staszewski, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Public%20Engagement%20in%20Rulemaking%20Final%20Report.pdf Public Engagement with Agency Rulemaking] (Nov. 19, 2018) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Reuel Schiller, [https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1704&context=faculty_scholarship Rulemaking’s Promise: Administrative Law and Legal Culture in the 1960s and 1970s], 53 Admin. L. Rev. 1139 (2001).
 +
 
 +
*Jason A. Schwartz & Richard L. Revesz, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final%2520Petitions%2520for%2520Rulemaking%2520Report%2520%255B11-5-14%255D.pdf Petitions for Rulemaking] (Nov. 5, 2014) (report to ACUS).
 +
 
 +
*Esa Sferra-Bonistalli, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final%20Ex%20Parte%20Communications%20in%20Informal%20Rulemaking%20%5B5-1-14%5D_0.pdf “Ex Parte” Communications in Informal Rulemaking] (May 1, 2014) (report to ACUS).
 +
 
 +
*Sidney Shapiro, Elizabeth Fisher & Wendy Wagner, [http://wakeforestlawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/SFW_LawReview_10.12.pdf The Enlightenment of Administrative Law: Looking Inside the Agency for Legitimacy], 47 Wake Forest L. Rev. 463 (2012).
 +
 
 +
*George Shepherd, ''Fierce Compromise: The Administrative Procedure Act Emerges from New Deal Politics'', 90 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1557 (1996).
 +
 
 +
*Kevin Stack, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Guidance%20in%20the%20Rulemaking%20Process%20Revised%20Draft%20Report%205_16_14%20ks%20final.pdf Guidance in the Rulemaking Process: Evaluating Preambles, Regulatory Text, and Freestanding Documents as Vehicles for Regulatory Guidance] (Jun. 10, 2014) (report to ACUS).
 +
 
 +
*Wendy Wagner, [http://wisconsinlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/13-Wagner.pdf The Participation-Centered Model Meets Administrative Process], 2013 Wis. L. Rev. 671.
 +
 
 +
*Wendy Wagner et al., [https://www.nyulawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/NYULawReview-92-1-Wagner-et-al.pdf Dynamic Rulemaking], 92 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 183 (2017).
 +
 
 +
*Christopher J. Walker, [https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/pages/docs/c_walker_apa_modernization.pdf Modernizing the Administrative Procedure Act], 69 Admin. L. Rev. 629 (2017).
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
====Web Addresses of Note====
 +
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 +
*Law Librarians’ Society of Washington, DC, [http://www.llsdc.org/federal-administrative-law-a-brief-overview Federal Administrative Law: A Brief Overview]
 +
 
 +
*[http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/ ABA Administrative Procedure Database]. Developed and maintained with the cooperation and support of the ABA Section of Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice and the Florida State University College of Law. Contains links to federal agency home pages, state resources, historical materials, and other useful resources.
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.acus.gov/ ACUS]
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.Congress.gov Congress]
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.federalregister.gov Federal Register]
 +
*[http://www.gao.gov Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports]
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/ Government Printing Office]
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/index.html LSU Government Documents & Microforms Library]. Links to federal agencies and subunits from all three branches.
 +
 
 +
*[http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/index.htm National Partnership for Reinventing Government] (the Clinton “Reinventing Government Initiative”).
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/federal-register Office of the Federal Register]
 +
**[https://www.federalregister.gov/ Federal Register] (1994 forward)
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.regulations.gov/ Regulations.gov]. The federal government’s “one-stop shop” for filing comments in rulemaking.
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.reginfo.gov Regulatory Information Service Center] (Unified Agenda of Regs. 1995-present)
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.sba.gov/advocacy SBA Office of Advocacy]
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.regulationwriters.com/ The Regulatory Group, Inc.]
 +
 
 +
*[http://thecre.com/ The Center for Regulatory Effectiveness]. extensive archive of [http://www.thecre.com/ombpapers/centralrev.html “Inside Administration” papers].
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/home.nsf U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit].
 +
 
 +
*[http://uscode.house.gov/search/criteria.shtml U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library—U.S. Code]
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.oge.gov/ U.S. Office of Government Ethics]
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.supremecourt.gov/index.html U.S. Supreme Court].
 +
 
 +
*[https://guides.lib.virginia.edu/administrative_decisions University of Virginia School of Law Federal Administrative Decisions and Actions Page] (containing links to the various administrative actions that fall outside the scope of the Code of Federal Regulations or ''Federal Register'').
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.usa.gov/ USA.gov].
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
===Agency Regulations===
 +
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
 +
*'''Agriculture''':
 +
**Rulemaking and other notice procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=se7.1.1_127&rgn=div8 7 C.F.R. § 1.27])
 +
**Petitions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=se7.1.1_128&rgn=div8 7 C.F.R. § 1.28])
 +
**Administrative Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=sp7.1.1.h&rgn=div6 7 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. H])
 +
**Rules of Practice under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=pt7.2.47&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 47])
 +
**Rules of Practice Governing Withdrawal of Inspection and Grading Services ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=pt7.2.50&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 50])
 +
**Federal Seed Act Rules of Practice ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=da54524c8bd0938f07a3293308ace342&mc=true&node=pt7.3.202&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 202])
 +
**General Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=da54524c8bd0938f07a3293308ace342&mc=true&node=pt7.8.900&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 900])
 +
*'''Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board''':
 +
**Practice and Procedures for Compliance Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ed4ab61717f3e0cb996e918741bdb0d4&mc=true&node=pt36.3.1150&rgn=div5 36 C.F.R. Part 1150])
 +
*'''Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection''':
 +
**Special Rules of Practice (Regulation L) ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=bae0be64373cae37b503d4afc3f570a1&mc=true&node=pt12.8.1012&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 1012])
 +
**Procedure Related to Rulemaking ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=bae0be64373cae37b503d4afc3f570a1&mc=true&node=pt12.9.1074&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 1074])
 +
*'''Coast Guard (Homeland Security)''':
 +
**Rules of Practice, Procedure, and Evidence for Formal Administrative Proceedings of the Coast Guard ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=d9ccdb0113d92efd69c371638403cc26&mc=true&node=pt33.1.20&rgn=div5 33 C.F.R. Part 20])
 +
**Marine Investigation Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt46.1.5&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 5])
 +
***Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=01ac5838225a00b79711130bce996b16&mc=true&node=sp46.1.5.h&rgn=div6 Subpt. H])
 +
***Appeals ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=01ac5838225a00b79711130bce996b16&mc=true&node=sp46.1.5.j&rgn=div6 Subpt. J])
 +
***Review of Administrative Law Judge’s Decisions in Cases Where Charges Have Been Found Proved ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=01ac5838225a00b79711130bce996b16&mc=true&node=sp46.1.5.k&rgn=div6 Subpt. K])
 +
*'''Commodity Futures Trading Commission''':
 +
**Rules of Practice ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae8720924b8368bbc413d20436205d3c&mc=true&node=pt17.1.10&rgn=div5 17 C.F.R. Part 10])
 +
**Rules Relating to Reparations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae8720924b8368bbc413d20436205d3c&mc=true&node=pt17.1.12&rgn=div5 17 C.F.R. Part 12])
 +
**Public Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae8720924b8368bbc413d20436205d3c&mc=true&node=pt17.1.13&rgn=div5 17 C.F.R. Part 13])
 +
*'''Consumer Product Safety Commission''':
 +
**Rules of Practice for Adjudicative Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1025&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1025])
 +
**Procedure for Petitioning for Rulemaking ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1051&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1051])
 +
**Procedural Regulations for Informal Oral Presentations in Proceedings before the Consumer Product Safety Commission ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1052&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1052])
 +
*'''Environmental Protection Agency''':
 +
**Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt40.1.22&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 22])
 +
**Rules Governing Issuance of and Administrative Hearings on Interim Status Corrective Action Orders ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt40.1.24&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 24])
 +
**Public Participation in Programs under the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Clean Water Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.1.25&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 25])
 +
**Public Hearings on Effluent Standards for Toxic Pollutants ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.24.104&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 104])
 +
**Employee Protection Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.24.108&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 108])
 +
**Rules of Practice Governing Hearings, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Arising from Refusals to Register, Cancellation of Registrations, Changes of Classifications, Suspensions of Registrations and other Hearings Called Pursuant to Section 6 of the Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.26.164&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 164])
 +
**Rules of Practice Governing Proceedings under the Noise Control Act of 1972 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.27.209&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 209])
 +
*'''Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt12.5.308&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 308])
 +
*'''Federal Emergency Management Agency''':
 +
**Rulemaking, Policy, and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06eb1e1ac47b6f58bb5d1ab9b3eed70c&mc=true&node=pt44.1.1&rgn=div5 44 C.F.R. Part 1])
 +
**Administrative Hearing Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt44.1.68&rgn=div5 44 C.F.R. Part 68])
 +
*'''Federal Energy Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt18.1.385&rgn=div5 18 C.F.R. Part 385])
 +
*'''Federal Labor Relations Authority''':
 +
**Representation Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt5.3.2422&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 2422])
 +
**Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt5.3.2423&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 2423])
 +
*'''Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt29.9.2700&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 2700])
 +
*'''Federal Reserve Board''':
 +
**Rules of Procedure ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt12.4.262&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 262])
 +
**Rules of Practice for Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt12.4.263&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 263])
 +
*'''Federal Trade Commission''':
 +
**General Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=844e0e738bf8aaddf7df134f99c91f98&mc=true&n=pt16.1.1&r=PART&ty=HTML 16 C.F.R. Part 1])
 +
***Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=sp16.1.1.b&rgn=div6 Subpt. B])
 +
***Rules Promulgated Under Authority Other Than Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=sp16.1.1.c&rgn=div6 Subpt. C])
 +
**Rules of Practice for Adjudicative Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.1.3&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 3])
 +
**Ex parte communications ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=se16.1.4_17&rgn=div8 16 C.F.R. § 4.7])
 +
*'''Federal Communications Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt47.1.1&rgn=div5 47 C.F.R. Part 1])
 +
*'''Health and Human Services''':
 +
**'''Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services''':
 +
***Civil Money Penalties, Assessments, and Exclusions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt42.2.402&rgn=div5 42 C.F.R. Part 402])
 +
***Appeals under the Medicare Part B Program ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=sp42.2.405.h&rgn=div6 42 C.F.R. Part 405, Subpt. H])
 +
***Determinations, Redeterminations, Reconsiderations, and Appeals under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) [[https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=sp42.2.405.i&rgn=div6 42 C.F.R. Part 405, Subpt. I]]
 +
**'''Food and Drug Administration''':
 +
***Administrative Practices and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.10&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 10])
 +
***Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.11&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 11])
 +
***Formal Evidentiary Public Hearing ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.12&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 12])
 +
***Public Hearing before a Public Board of Inquiry ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.13&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 13])
 +
***Public Hearing before a Public Advisory Committee ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.14&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 14])
 +
***Public Hearing before the Commissioner ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.15&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 15])
 +
***Regulatory Hearing before the Food and Drug Administration ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.16&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 16])
 +
***Civil Money Penalties Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.17&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 17])
 +
*'''Housing and Urban Development''':
 +
**Hearing Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt24.1.26&rgn=div5 24 C.F.R. Part 26])
 +
**Procedures to present views and evidence ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=se24.5.3282_1152&rgn=div8 24 C.F.R. § 3282.152])
 +
**Rulemaking: Policy and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/current/title-24/subtitle-A/part-10 24 C.F.R. Part 10])
 +
*'''Interior''':
 +
**Department Hearings and Appeals Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt43.1.4&rgn=div5 43 C.F.R. Part 4])
 +
**Civil Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt50.1.11&rgn=div5 50 C.F.R. Part 11])
 +
*'''International Trade Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt19.3.210&rgn=div5 19 C.F.R. Part 210])
 +
*'''Justice''':
 +
**'''Drug Enforcement Administration''':
 +
***Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, and Dispensers of Controlled Substances: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1301_137.sg4&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1301.41-.46])
 +
***Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, and Dispensers of Controlled Substances: Action on Application for Registration: Revocation or Suspension of Registration ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1301_129.sg3&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1303.31-.37])
 +
***Schedules of Controlled Substances: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=dc277a3b4ca2afc319396c9e1f89cfc1&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1308_135.sg8&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1308.41-.45])
 +
***Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, Importers, and Exporters of List I Chemicals: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=dc277a3b4ca2afc319396c9e1f89cfc1&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1309_146.sg5&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1309.51-.55])
 +
***Importation and Exportation of Controlled Substances: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=dc277a3b4ca2afc319396c9e1f89cfc1&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1312_132.sg3&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1312.41-.47])
 +
***Importation and Exportation of List I and List II Chemicals: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1313_142.sg3&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1313.51-.57])
 +
***Administrative Functions, Practices, and Procedures: Administrative Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp21.9.1316.d&rgn=div6 21 C.F.R. §§ 1316.41-.68])
 +
**Newspaper Preservation Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=se28.2.48_110&rgn=div8 28 C.F.R. §§ 48.10])
 +
*'''Labor'''
 +
**Black Lung Benefits Cases ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=8f2ed31378cd99aa0a5c8c8be974e8c4&mc=true&n=pt20.4.725&r=PART&ty=HTML 20 C.F.R. Part 725]):
 +
***Adjudication Officers; Parties and Representatives ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.725.d&rgn=div6 Subpt. D])
 +
***Adjudication of Claims by the District Director ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.725.e&rgn=div6 Subpt. E])
 +
***Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.725.f&rgn=div6 Subpt. F])
 +
**Longshoremen’s and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Cases ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.702.c&rgn=div6 20 C.F.R. Part 702, Subpt. C])
 +
**'''Occupational Safety and Health Administration''':
 +
***Rules of Procedure for Variances, Limitations, Variations, Tolerances, and Exemptions under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.5.1905&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 1905])
 +
***Rules of Procedure for Promulgating, Modifying, or Revoking Occupational Safety or Health Standards ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.7.1911&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 1911])
 +
**'''Office of Federal Contract Compliance''':
 +
***General Enforcement; Compliance Review and Complaint Procedure ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=417042c8815a3a4ccb35245d0564f4a4&mc=true&n=sp41.1.60_61.b&r=SUBPART&ty=HTML 41 C.F.R. Part 60-1, Subpt. B])
 +
***Rules of Practice for Administrative Proceedings to Enforce Equal Opportunity under Executive Order 11246 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt41.1.60_630&rgn=div5 41 C.F.R. Part 60-30])
 +
**Other Cases:
 +
***Rules of Practice for Administrative Proceedings Enforcing Labor Standards in Federal and Federally Assisted Construction Contracts and Federal Service Contracts ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.1.6&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 6])
 +
***Practice before the Administrative Review Board with regard to Federal Service Contracts ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.1.8&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 8])
 +
*'''Merit Systems Protection Board''':
 +
**Practices and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt5.3.1201&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 1201])
 +
**Procedures for Review of Rules and Regulations of the Office of Personnel Management ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt5.3.1203&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 1203])
 +
**Practices and Procedures for Appeals and Stay Requests of Personnel Actions Allegedly Based on Whistleblowing or Other Protected Activity ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt5.3.1209&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 1209])
 +
*'''National Credit Union Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt12.7.747&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 747])
 +
*'''National Labor Relations Board''':
 +
**Statements of Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.2.101&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 101])
 +
**Rules and Regulations, Series 8 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.2.102&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 102])
 +
*'''National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Commerce)''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp15.3.904.c&rgn=div6 15 C.F.R. Part 904, Subpt. C])
 +
*'''Nuclear Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt10.1.2&rgn=div5 10 C.F.R. Part 2])
 +
*'''Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.9.2200&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 2200])
 +
*'''Postal Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp39.1.3001.a&rgn=div6 39 C.F.R. Part 3001, Subpt. A])
 +
*'''Postal Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title39/39CIsubchapN.tpl 39 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Subchapter N])
 +
*'''Securities and Exchange Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp17.3.201.d&rgn=div6 17 C.F.R. Part 201, Subpt. D])
 +
*'''Small Business Administration''':
 +
**Rules of Procedure Governing Cases before the Office of Hearings and Appeals ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt13.1.134&rgn=div5 13 C.F.R. Part 134])
 +
**Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt13.1.142&rgn=div5 13 C.F.R. Part 142])
 +
*'''Social Security Administration''':
 +
**Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.2.404.j&rgn=div6 20 C.F.R. Part 404, Subpt. J])
 +
**Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd4https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.2.416.n&rgn=div65047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.2.404.j&rgn=div6 20 C.F.R. Part 416, Subpt. N])
 +
*'''State''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt22.1.128&rgn=div5 22 C.F.R. Part 128])
 +
*'''Surface Transportation Board''':
 +
**Procedures Governing Informal Rulemaking Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1110&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1110])
 +
**Complaint and Investigation Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1111&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1111])
 +
**Modified Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1112&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1112])
 +
**Oral Hearing ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1113&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1113])
 +
**Evidence; Discovery ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1114&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1114])
 +
**Appellate Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1115&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1115])
 +
**Oral Argument before the Board ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1116&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1116])
 +
**Petitions (For Relief) Not Otherwise Covered ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1117&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1117])
 +
**Compliance with Board Decisions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1119&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1119])
 +
*'''Transportation'''
 +
**'''Federal Aviation Administration''':
 +
***General Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt14.1.11&rgn=div5 14 C.F.R. Part 11])
 +
***Rules of Procedure for FAA Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=sp14.1.13.d&rgn=div6 14 C.F.R. Part 13, Subpt. D])
 +
**'''Federal Highway Administration''':
 +
***Rules of Practice for FMCSA Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.5.386&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 386])
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures - Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.5.389&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 389])
 +
**'''Federal Maritime Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt46.9.502&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 502])
 +
**'''Maritime Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt46.8.201&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 201])
 +
**'''National Highway Traffic Safety Administration''':
 +
***Adjudicative Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.6.511&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 511])
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.6.553&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 553])
 +
**'''National Transportation Safety Board''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.7.821&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 821])
 +
**'''Office of the Secretary''':
 +
***Rules of Practice in Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt14.4.302&rgn=div5 14 C.F.R. Part 302])
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.1.5&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 5])
 +
**'''Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration''':
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.2.106&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 106])
 +
***Enforcement ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=sp49.2.107.d&rgn=div6 49 C.F.R. Part 107, Subpt. D])
 +
*'''Treasury''':
 +
**'''Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt27.2.71&rgn=div5 27 C.F.R Part 71])
 +
**'''Comptroller of the Currency''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt12.1.19&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 19])
 +
**'''Internal Revenue Service''':
 +
***Statement of Procedural Rules ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt26.22.601&rgn=div5 26 C.F.R. Part 601])
 +
***Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=sp31.1.10.d&rgn=div6 31 C.F.R. Part 10, Subpt. D])
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
==Statutory Provisions==
 +
 
 +
Administrative Procedure Act
 +
 
 +
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 +
Title 5 U.S. Code
 +
 
 +
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter2&edition=prelim Chapter 5, Subchapter II—Administrative Procedure]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section551&num=0&edition=prelim § 551. Definitions]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552&num=0&edition=prelim § 552. Public information; agency rules, opinions, orders, records, and proceedings]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552a&num=0&edition=prelim § 552a. Records about individuals]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552b&num=0&edition=prelim § 552b. Open meetings]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section553&num=0&edition=prelim § 553. Rule making]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim § 554. Adjudications]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section555&num=0&edition=prelim § 555. Ancillary matters]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim § 556. Hearings; presiding employees; powers and duties; burden of proof; evidence; record as basis of decision]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim § 557. Initial decisions; conclusiveness; review by agency; submissions by parties; contents of decisions; record]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section558&num=0&edition=prelim § 558. Imposition of sanctions; determination of applications for licenses; suspension, revocation, and expiration of licenses]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section559&num=0&edition=prelim § 559. Effect on other laws; effect of subsequent statute]
 +
*Other Provisions
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim § 1305. Administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim § 3105. Appointment of administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3344&num=0&edition=prelim § 3344. Details; administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim § 5372. Administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim § 7521. Actions against administrative law judges]
 +
</div>

Latest revision as of 15:02, 25 May 2022

5 U.S.C. §§ 551–559, 701–706, 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, 7521 (2012); originally enacted by Pub. L. No. 79-404, 60 Stat. 237, Ch. 324, §§ 1–12, June 11, 1946.

The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) as originally enacted was repealed by Pub. L. No. 89-554, 80 Stat. 381, Sept. 6, 1966, as part of the general revision of title 5 of the United States Code. Its provisions were incorporated into title 5 of the United States Code. Although the original section numbers are used sometimes, it is actually an error to use the original section numbers unless one is referring to the APA prior to its codification in 1966. In this volume all references to the Act are to sections of title 5.

Section 552 has been revised significantly since 1946 and is commonly known as the Freedom of Information Act. Section 552a (the Privacy Act) was added to the APA in 1974 and has been amended several times since. Section 552b (the Government in the Sunshine Act) was added in 1976 and amended once. Sections 701–706 pertaining to judicial review are discussed and set forth separately in Judicial Review of Agency Action. Two significant laws relating to rulemaking and adjudication were enacted in 1990—the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 571–584) and the Negotiated Rulemaking Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 561–570)—which are discussed separately.

Overview

Attempts to regularize federal administrative procedures go back at least to the 1930s. Early in 1939, at the suggestion of the attorney general, President Roosevelt asked the attorney general to appoint a distinguished committee to study existing administrative procedures and to formulate recommendations. The Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure, chaired by Dean Acheson, produced a series of monographs on agency functions and submitted its Final Report to the President and the Congress in 1941. These materials, as well as extensive hearings held before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1941, are primary historical sources for the APA.

The APA was signed into law by President Truman on June 11, 1946. In the months that followed, the Department of Justice compiled a manual of advice and interpretation of its various provisions. The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act, published in 1947, remains the principal guide to the structure and intent of the APA. The Manual states the purposes of the APA as follows:

  1. To require agencies to keep the public currently informed of their organization, procedures, and rules,
  2. To provide for public participation in the rulemaking process,
  3. To prescribe uniform standards for the conduct of formal rulemaking and adjudicatory proceedings (i.e., proceedings required by statute to be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing), and
  4. To restate the law of judicial review.

The APA imposes upon agencies certain procedural requirements for two modes of agency decision making: rulemaking and adjudication. In general, the term “agency” refers to any authority of the government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency—but excluding the Congress, the courts, and the governments of territories, possessions, or the District of Columbia. Definitions of other terms may be found in section 551.

Structure of the Administrative Procedure Act

The APA has two major subdivisions: sections 551 through 559, dealing in general with agency procedures, and sections 701 through 706, dealing in general with judicial review. In addition, several sections dealing with administrative law judges (§§ 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, and 7521) are scattered through title 5 of the United States Code.

The structure of the APA is shaped around the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, with different sets of procedural requirements prescribed for each. Rulemaking is agency action that regulates the future conduct of persons through the formulation and issuance of an agency statement designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy. It is essentially legislative in nature because of its future general applicability and its concern for policy considerations. By contrast, adjudication is concerned with determination of past and present rights and liabilities. The result of an adjudicative proceeding is the issuance of an “order.” (Licensing decisions are considered to be adjudication.)

The line separating these two modes of agency action is not always clear because agencies engage in a great variety of actions. Most agencies use rulemaking to formulate future policy, though there is no bar to announcing policy statements in adjudicatory orders. Agencies normally use a combination of rulemaking and adjudication to effectuate their programs. The APA definition of a “rule,” somewhat confusingly, speaks of an “agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect.” The words “or particular” were apparently included in the definition to encompass such actions as the setting of rates or the approval of corporate reorganizations, to be carried out under the relatively flexible procedures governing rulemaking.

Beyond the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, the APA subdivides each of these categories of agency action into formal and informal proceedings. Whether a particular rulemaking or adjudication proceeding is considered to be “formal” depends on whether the proceeding is required by statute to be “on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing” (5 U.S.C. §§ 553(c), 554(a)). The APA prescribes elaborate procedures for both formal rulemaking and formal adjudication, and relatively minimal procedures for informal rulemaking. The APA prescribes virtually no procedures for the remaining category of informal adjudication, which is by far the most prevalent form of governmental action.

Rulemaking

Section 553 sets forth the basic requirements for rulemaking: notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, followed by an opportunity for some level of participation by interested persons, and finally publication of the rule, in most instances at least 30 days before it becomes effective. For a detailed discussion of rulemaking procedures, see Jeffrey Lubbers’s A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking.

Excluded from the coverage of the APA are rulemakings involving military or foreign affairs functions and matters relating to agency management or personnel, public property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts. The APA’s general policy is to provide an opportunity for public participation in rulemaking, to foster the fair and informed exercise of agency authority; these exceptions are “narrowly construed and only reluctantly countenanced.” Am. Fed’n of Gov't Emps., AFL-CIO v. Block, 655 F.2d 1153 (D.C. Cir. 1981). They are neither mandatory nor intended to discourage agencies from using public participation procedures. On the contrary, when Congress enacted the APA, it encouraged agencies to use the notice-and-comment procedure in some excepted cases, and many agencies routinely do so in making certain kinds of exempted rules. ACUS encouraged this trend and called on Congress to eliminate or narrow several of these exemptions. “Regulatory reform” legislative proposals considered over the years have contained provisions to alter or eliminate several of these exemptions.

Most rulemaking proceedings involve informal rulemaking, where all that the APA requires for public participation is an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments; oral presentations may also be permitted. The published rule must incorporate a concise general statement of its basis and purpose. Despite the brevity of these requirements, Congress has routinely, through other statutes, added procedural requirements that affect various agency programs. These additional statutory requirements may apply to specific agencies or programs or may be government-wide (such as the Regulatory Flexibility Act). Recent presidents have also imposed additional requirements for rulemaking. See White House Orders, Bulletins, and Memoranda. Though courts have sometimes sought to add procedural requirements, the Supreme Court’s decision in Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 435 U.S. 519 (1978), has, to a great extent, limited this kind of judicial activity. In Vermont Yankee, the Supreme Court held that where rulemaking is governed by the (informal) requirements of section 553, as in the case of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s regulation of nuclear power plants, the courts may not require additional procedures.

The APA also provides for formal rulemaking—a procedure employed when rules are required by statute to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Essentially, this procedure requires that the agency issue its rule after the kind of trial-type hearing procedures (§§ 556, 557) normally reserved for adjudicatory orders. The Supreme Court, in United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co., 410 U.S. 224 (1973), held that such a procedure was required only where the statute involved specifically requires an “on the record” hearing. Because few statutes include this requirement, formal rulemaking is used infrequently.  However, numerous agency statutes (often called “hybrid rulemaking” statutes) do require some specific procedures beyond the basic notice-and-comment elements of informal rulemaking.

Negotiated Rulemaking

The Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990 establishes a statutory framework for the conduct of negotiated rulemaking, a procedure developed in large part through ACUS–sponsored research. As with other alternative means of dispute resolution (ADR), negotiated rulemaking uses consensual techniques to produce results, rather than an agency decision based upon its data and conclusions, hopefully aided by public input. Numerous agencies have successfully completed negotiated rules over the years, but it remains an exceptional technique for adopting rules.

The Negotiated Rulemaking Act clearly establishes regulatory agencies’ authority to use such consensual techniques as negotiated rulemaking without limiting agency innovation. It identifies criteria for the discretionary determination by agency heads of whether and when to use negotiated rulemaking and sets forth basic requirements for public notice and the conduct of meetings under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

Adjudication

Sections 554, 556, and 557 apply to formal adjudication (i.e., to cases for which an adjudicatory proceeding is required by statute to be determined on the record after the opportunity for an agency hearing).  These sections apply, for example, to proceedings by certain agencies seeking to impose civil money penalties as part of a regulatory enforcement program.

Section 554(a) specifically exempts six types of proceedings from the requirements of these sections:

  • matters subject to a subsequent de novo trial in court;
  • certain personnel matters other than for administrative law judges;
  • decisions based solely on inspections, tests, or elections;
  • military or foreign affairs functions;
  • cases in which an agency acts as agent for a court; and
  • certification of worker representatives.

Section 554(b) specifies notice requirements. Section 554(c) provides for an opportunity for submission and consideration of facts, arguments, and informal settlements where practicable. Section 554(d) forbids presiding officers from engaging in ex parte (off-the-record) consultations on facts at issue in the case. The subsection also addresses “separation of functions” by restricting agency employees engaged in investigation or prosecution of a case from supervising the presiding officer or participating or advising in the decision in that or a factually related case (with certain exceptions). Section 554(e) authorizes agencies, in their discretion, to issue declaratory orders that would terminate a controversy or remove uncertainty with respect to matters required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for a hearing.

Sections 556 and 557 prescribe the specific procedures to be used in formal adjudication.  In brief, a trial-type hearing must be held, conducted either by some or all of the members of the agency or by an administrative law judge (ALJ) (appointed under 5 U.S.C. § 3105). An ALJ is normally the presiding officer in formal adjudication. The APA (§ 556(c)) spells out the powers and duties of ALJs, formerly called hearing examiners. It also provides for the independence of ALJs by protecting their tenure (5 U.S.C. § 7521) and pay (5 U.S.C. § 5372) and prohibiting inconsistent duties (5 U.S.C. § 3105). In addition, under 5 U.S.C. § 1305, the Office of Personnel Management has prescribed a special selection procedure for the appointment of ALJs. Currently, there are over 1,900 ALJs in the federal government, the vast majority of which are located in the Social Security Administration. In 2018, the Supreme Court held that ALJs are inferior officers under the Appointments Clause of the U.S. Constitution and must be appointed by the President or a head of a department. Lucia v. SEC, 138 S. Ct. 2044 (2018). Subsequently, President Trump issued Executive Order 13843, Excepting Administrative Law Judges From the Competitive Service, which placed ALJs in the excepted service and afforded agency heads more flexibility in hiring decisions.

Section 556 also covers disqualification of presiding officers, burden of proof, and parties’ rights to cross-examination. It provides that the transcript of testimony and exhibits, together with all documents filed in the proceeding, constitutes the exclusive record for decision.

Section 557 provides that when, as is usually the case, a hearing is not conducted by the agency itself, the presiding officer (normally an ALJ) must issue an initial decision—unless the agency requires that the entire record be certified to the agency for decision. An initial decision automatically becomes the agency’s decision unless appealed or reviewed on motion of the agency. Section 557 provides, in general, an opportunity for parties to submit for consideration their own proposed findings and conclusions, or exceptions to decisions. The record must show the ruling on each finding, conclusion, or exception presented. Section 557(d) was added to the APA by the Government in the Sunshine Act in 1976 to prohibit ex parte communications relevant to the merits of a pending formal agency proceeding. However, where ex parte communications do take place, their content must be placed on the public record, and, if the communication was knowingly made by a party, the presiding officer may require the party to show cause why a decision should not be made adversely affecting the party’s interest. Most agencies have adopted procedures applicable to their formal hearings. The Manual for Administrative Law Judges contains a detailed discussion of procedures for the conduct of hearings and a collection of model forms.

Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution

The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) specifically provides agencies with the authority to employ mediation, arbitration, and other consensual methods of dispute resolution in resolving cases under the APA and in other kinds of agency disputes. The ADRA specifically establishes a federal policy encouraging ADR in place of more costly, time-consuming adjudication. While no agency is forced to use ADR techniques, the ADRA requires each agency head to undertake a review of typical agency litigation and administrative disputes to assess where ADR techniques will be useful.

Miscellaneous Provisions

Section 555 states various procedural rights of private parties, which may be incidental to rulemaking, adjudication, or the exercise of any other agency authority. Section 555(b) addresses appearances in agency proceedings by parties, counsel, and other interested persons. Section 555(c) provides that a person compelled to submit data or evidence is entitled to a copy or transcript, except that in nonpublic investigations this may be limited to a right to inspect the official transcript. Additional provisions of section 555 relate to subpoenas and to the requirement of prompt notice of denials of applications, petitions, or other requests made to agencies.

Section 558 is a rarely invoked section of the APA. Section 558(b) makes clear the requirement that agency rules, orders, and sanctions be within the jurisdiction delegated to the agency and otherwise authorized by law. Section 558(c) contains some special notice provisions and other procedural requirements for handling applications, suspensions, revocations, or license renewals.

Legislative History

The legislative history of the APA begins with the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure (1941). This report led to the introduction in Congress of the so-called majority and minority bills, respectively designated as S. 675 and S. 674, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. These bills, together with S. 918, formed the basis for extensive hearings held in 1941 before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. In 1945, the House Committee on the Judiciary held brief hearings on various administrative procedure bills, of which H.R. 1203, 79th Cong., was the precursor of the APA as passed. Also in June 1945, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary issued a comparative print with comments, which is an essential part of the legislative history. The committee reports on the APA are S. Rep. No. 752 (1945) and H.R. Rep. No. 1980 (1946). In October 1945, at the request of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, the Attorney General submitted a letter and attached memorandum that set forth the understanding of the Department of Justice as to the purpose and meaning of the various provisions of the bill (S.7). This letter and memorandum constitute Appendix B of the Senate Committee Report. They also appear as an appendix in the Attorney General’s Manual.

The Senate and House debates and the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, other than the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee, are compiled in S. Doc. No. 248, Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46 (1946). The Final Report was published as S. Doc. No. 8 (1941). The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act (1947) is a contemporaneous interpretive guide to the original language of the APA.

Individual agencies have adopted procedural rules within the framework of the APA for the conduct of rulemaking and adjudication.

The comprehensive A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking (5th ed. 2012) discusses the entire rulemaking process. It was published initially by ACUS and is now published by the ABA. ACUS also published a Manual for Administrative Law Judges (3d ed. 1993), which is a handbook of practice in the conduct of hearings.

ACUS has sponsored numerous studies of rulemaking and adjudication procedures and recommended a variety of improvements in agency practice. Its recommendations appeared in the Federal Register and may be found on its website.

Bibliography

Legislative History and Congressional Documents

  • Administrative Procedure in Government Agencies, S. Doc. No. 8 (1941) (Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure).
  • Report on S. 7, H.R. Rep. No. 1980 (1946).

ACUS Recommendations

Other Government Documents

Other Resources

Books

  • Alfred C. Aman & William T. Mayton, Hornbook on Administrative Law (West Acad. Publ’g, 3d ed. 2014).
  • Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts eds., A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies (ABA, 2d ed. 2015).
  • William F. Fox, Understanding Administrative Law (LexisNexis, 6th ed. 2012).
  • William Funk & Richard Seamon, Administrative Law: Examples & Explanations (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2015).
  • Ronald Levin & Jeffrey S. Lubbers, Administrative Law and Process in a Nutshell (West Nutshell Series, 6th ed. 2017).
  • Jeffrey Litwak ed., A Guide to Federal Agency Adjudication (ABA, 2d ed. 2014).
  • Jeffrey S. Lubbers, A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking (ABA, 6th ed. 2018).
  • Richard J. Pierce, Administrative Law Treatise (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2009).
  • Richard J. Pierce, Sidney A. Shapiro & Paul R. Verkuil, Administrative Law and Process (Found. Press, 5th ed. 2009).
  • Thomas O. Sargentich ed., Administrative Law Anthology (Anderson Publ’g Co. [now Lexis-Nexis], 1994).
  • Peter H. Schuck, Foundations of Administrative Law (LexisNexis, 3d ed. 2012).
  • Peter Strauss ed., Administrative Law Stories (Found. Press, 2006).
  • Peter L. Strauss, An Introduction to Administrative Justice in the United States (Carolina Acad. Press, 2d revision, 2002).
  • ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law (ABA, 2d ed. 2013) (1st ed. published at 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1 (2002)).

Periodicals (aside from law reviews generally)

  • Administrative Law Review (published by American University Washington College of Law and the ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice)
  • Developments in Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice (Annual series beginning 1998-99 and continuing to 2014) (Jeffrey Lubbers ed., ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice).
  • Bloomberg BNA, Administrative Law, Third Series: A multivolume loose-leaf service, updated monthly. The Desk Book includes coverage of key statutes, legislative history, implementation memoranda, and agency rules; the Digest system organizes administrative law into 14 major topics (e.g., Costs and Fees, Judicial Review, Rulemaking), with multiple subtopics for each; and the Decisions volumes report significant federal court and agency decisions on administrative procedure and judicial review. Digests of salient points of law are placed under the appropriate subtopics for easy retrieval. A 12-page newsletter, the AdLaw Bulletin, containing case highlights and stories on agency and legislative developments, accompanies each monthly release and is kept in separate binder. The Bulletin also contains practice-oriented articles by outside experts on hot topics.

Selected Articles and Other Documents

  • Michael Asimow, Interim-Final Rules: Making Haste Slowly, 51 Admin. L. Rev. 703 (1999).
  • William Funk, When Is a “Rule” a Regulation? Marking a Clear Line Between Nonlegislative Rules and Legislative Rules, 54 Admin. L. Rev. 659 (2002).
  • Jeffrey S. Lubbers, APA Adjudication: Is the Quest for Uniformity Faltering?, 10 Admin. L. J. Am. U. 65 (1996).
  • Jeffrey Lubbers, The Transformation of the U.S. Rulemaking Process—For Better or Worse, 34 Ohio N. Univ. L. Rev. 469 (2008).
  • Jeffrey Lubbers & Blake Morant, A Reexamination of Federal Agency Use of Declaratory Orders, 56 Admin. L. Rev. 1097 (2004).
  • John Manning, Nonlegislative Rules, 72 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 893 (2004).
  • Thomas Merrill & Kathryn Watts, Agency Rules with the Force of Law: The Original Convention, 116 Harv. L. Rev. 467 (2002).
  • Elizabeth G. Porter & Kathryn A. Watts, Visual Rulemaking, 91 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1183 (2016).
  • George Shepherd, Fierce Compromise: The Administrative Procedure Act Emerges from New Deal Politics, 90 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1557 (1996).

Web Addresses of Note

  • ABA Administrative Procedure Database. Developed and maintained with the cooperation and support of the ABA Section of Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice and the Florida State University College of Law. Contains links to federal agency home pages, state resources, historical materials, and other useful resources.
  • Regulations.gov. The federal government’s “one-stop shop” for filing comments in rulemaking.

Agency Regulations

Statutory Provisions

Administrative Procedure Act

Title 5 U.S. Code