Difference between revisions of "Administrative Procedure Act"

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==Citations==
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5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter2&edition=prelim 551–559], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim 701–706], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim 1305], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim 3105], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3344&num=0&edition=prelim 3344], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim 5372], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim 7521] (2012); originally enacted by [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/01/act-pl79-404.pdf Pub. L. No. 79-404], 60 Stat. 237, Ch. 324, §§ 1–12, June 11, 1946.
  
5 U.S.C. §§ 551–559, 701–706, 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, 7521 (2012); originally enacted June 11, 1946, by Pub. L. No. 404, 60 Stat. 237, Ch. 324, §§ 1–12.
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The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) as originally enacted was repealed by [http://uscode.house.gov/codification/t5/PubL89-554.pdf Pub. L. No. 89-554], 80 Stat. 381, Sept. 6, 1966, as part of the general revision of title 5 of the United States Code. Its provisions were incorporated into title 5 of the United States Code. Although the original section numbers are used sometimes, it is actually an error to use the original section numbers unless one is referring to the APA prior to its codification in 1966. In this volume all references to the Act are to sections of title 5.
  
The Administrative Procedure Act (APA), as originally enacted, was repealed by Pub. L. No. 89-554, 80 Stat. 381 (September 6, 1966), as part of the general revision of title 5 of the United States Code. Its provisions were incorporated into the sections of title 5 listed above. Although the original section numbers are used sometimes, it is actually an error to use the original section numbers unless one is referring to the APA prior to its codification in 1966. In this volume all references to the Act are to sections of title 5.
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552&num=0&edition=prelim Section 552] has been revised significantly since 1946 and is commonly known as the [[Freedom of Information Act]]. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552a&num=0&edition=prelim Section 552a] (the [[Privacy Act]]) was added to the APA in 1974 and has been amended several times since. Section 552b (the [[Government in the Sunshine Act]]) was added in 1976 and amended once. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim Sections 701–706] pertaining to judicial review are discussed and set forth separately in [[Judicial Review of Agency Action]]. Two significant laws relating to rulemaking and adjudication were enacted in 1990—the [[Administrative Dispute Resolution Act]] (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter4&edition=prelim §§ 571–584]) and the [[Negotiated Rulemaking Act]] (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter3&edition=prelim §§ 561–570])—which are discussed separately.
 
 
Section 552 has been revised significantly since 1946 and is commonly known as the Freedom of Information Act. Section 552a (the Privacy Act) was added to the APA in 1974 and has been amended several times since. Section 552b (the Government in the Sunshine Act) was added in 1976 and amended once. These sections and sections 701–706 pertaining to judicial review are discussed and set forth separately in this book. Two significant laws relating to rulemaking and adjudication were enacted in 1990—the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 571–584) and the Negotiated Rulemaking Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 561–570), which are discussed separately below.
 
  
 
==Overview==
 
==Overview==
  
Attempts to regularize federal administrative procedures go back at least to the 1930s. Early in 1939, at the suggestion of the attorney general, President Roosevelt asked the attorney general to appoint a distinguished committee to study existing administrative procedures and to formulate recommendations. The Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure, chaired by Dean Acheson, produced a series of monographs on agency functions and submitted its Final Report to the President and the Congress in 1941. These materials, plus extensive hearings held before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1941, are primary historical sources for the Administrative Procedure Act.
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Attempts to regularize federal administrative procedures go back at least to the 1930s. Early in 1939, at the suggestion of the attorney general, President Roosevelt asked the attorney general to appoint a distinguished committee to study existing administrative procedures and to formulate recommendations. The Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure, chaired by Dean Acheson, produced a series of monographs on agency functions and submitted its ''Final Report to the President and the Congress'' in 1941. These materials, as well as extensive hearings held before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1941, are primary historical sources for the APA.
 
 
The Administrative Procedure Act was signed into law by President Truman on June 11, 1946. In the months that followed, the Department of Justice compiled a manual of advice and interpretation of its various provisions. The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act, published in 1947, remains the principal guide to the structure and intent of the APA. The Manual states the purposes of the Act as follows:
 
 
 
(1) To require agencies to keep the public currently informed of their organization, procedures, and rules.
 
 
 
(2) To provide for public participation in the rulemaking process.
 
  
(3) To prescribe uniform standards for the conduct of formal rulemaking and adjudicatory proceedings (i.e., proceedings required by statute to be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing).
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The APA was signed into law by President Truman on June 11, 1946. In the months that followed, the Department of Justice compiled a manual of advice and interpretation of its various provisions. [http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/AttorneyGeneralsManual.pdf The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act], published in 1947, remains the principal guide to the structure and intent of the APA. The Manual states the purposes of the APA as follows:
  
(4) To restate the law of judicial review.
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#To require agencies to keep the public currently informed of their organization, procedures, and rules,
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#To provide for public participation in the rulemaking process,
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#To prescribe uniform standards for the conduct of formal rulemaking and adjudicatory proceedings (i.e., proceedings required by statute to be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing), and
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#To restate the law of judicial review.
  
The Act imposes upon agencies certain procedural requirements for two modes of agency decision making: rulemaking and adjudication. In general, the term “agency” refers to any authority of the government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency— but excluding the Congress, the courts, and the governments of territories, possessions, or the District of Columbia.  Definitions of other terms may be found in section 551.
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The APA imposes upon agencies certain procedural requirements for two modes of agency decision making: rulemaking and adjudication. In general, the term “agency” refers to any authority of the government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency—but excluding the Congress, the courts, and the governments of territories, possessions, or the District of Columbia. Definitions of other terms may be found in [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section551&num=0&edition=prelim section 551].
  
 
===Structure of the Administrative Procedure Act===  
 
===Structure of the Administrative Procedure Act===  
The Administrative Procedure Act has two major subdivisions: sections 551 through 559, dealing in general with agency procedures; and sections 701 through 706, dealing in general with judicial review. In addition, several sections dealing with administrative law judges (§§ 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, and 7521) are scattered through title 5 of the United States Code.  
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The APA has two major subdivisions: [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter2&edition=prelim sections 551 through 559], dealing in general with agency procedures, and [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim sections 701 through 706], dealing in general with judicial review. In addition, several sections dealing with administrative law judges (§§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim 1305], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim 3105], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3344&num=0&edition=prelim 3344], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim 5372], and [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim 7521]) are scattered through title 5 of the United States Code.  
  
The structure of the APA is shaped around the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, with different sets of procedural requirements prescribed for each. Rulemaking is agency action that regulates the future conduct of persons through formulation and issuance of an agency statement designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy. It is essentially legislative in nature because of its future general applicability and its concern for policy considerations. By contrast, adjudication is concerned with determination of past and present rights and liabilities. The result of an adjudicative proceeding is the issuance of an “order.” (Licensing decisions are considered to be adjudication.)
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The structure of the APA is shaped around the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, with different sets of procedural requirements prescribed for each. Rulemaking is agency action that regulates the future conduct of persons through the formulation and issuance of an agency statement designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy. It is essentially legislative in nature because of its future general applicability and its concern for policy considerations. By contrast, adjudication is concerned with determination of past and present rights and liabilities. The result of an adjudicative proceeding is the issuance of an “order.” (Licensing decisions are considered to be adjudication.)
  
The line separating these two modes of agency action is not always clear, because agencies engage in a great variety of actions. Most agencies use rulemaking to formulate future policy, though there is no bar to announcing policy statements in adjudicatory orders. Agencies normally use a combination of rulemaking and adjudication to effectuate their programs. The APA definition of a “rule,” somewhat confusingly, speaks of an “agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect.” The words “or particular” were apparently included in the definition to encompass such actions as the setting of rates or the approval of corporate reorganizations, to be carried out under the relatively flexible procedures governing rulemaking.  
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The line separating these two modes of agency action is not always clear because agencies engage in a great variety of actions. Most agencies use rulemaking to formulate future policy, though there is no bar to announcing policy statements in adjudicatory orders. Agencies normally use a combination of rulemaking and adjudication to effectuate their programs. The APA definition of a “rule,” somewhat confusingly, speaks of an “agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect.” The words “or particular” were apparently included in the definition to encompass such actions as the setting of rates or the approval of corporate reorganizations, to be carried out under the relatively flexible procedures governing rulemaking.  
  
Beyond the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, the APA subdivides each of these categories of agency action into formal and informal proceedings. Whether a particular rulemaking or adjudication proceeding is considered to be “formal” depends on whether the proceeding is required by statute to be “on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing” (5 U.S.C. §§ 553(c), 554(a)). The Act prescribes elaborate procedures for both formal rulemaking and formal adjudication, and relatively minimal procedures for informal rulemaking. Virtually no procedures are prescribed by the APA for the remaining category of informal adjudication, which is by far the most prevalent form of governmental action.  
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Beyond the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, the APA subdivides each of these categories of agency action into formal and informal proceedings. Whether a particular rulemaking or adjudication proceeding is considered to be “formal” depends on whether the proceeding is required by statute to be “on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing” (5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section553&num=0&edition=prelim 553(c)], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim 554(a)]). The APA prescribes elaborate procedures for both formal rulemaking and formal adjudication, and relatively minimal procedures for informal rulemaking. The APA prescribes virtually no procedures for the remaining category of informal adjudication, which is by far the most prevalent form of governmental action.  
  
 
===Rulemaking===  
 
===Rulemaking===  
Section 553 sets forth the basic requirements for rulemaking: notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, followed by an opportunity for some level of participation by interested persons, and finally publication of the rule, in most instances at least 30 days before it becomes effective. For a detailed discussion of rulemaking procedures, see Jeffrey Lubbers’s A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking, published by the American Bar Association (5th ed. 2012).
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section553&num=0&edition=prelim Section 553] sets forth the basic requirements for rulemaking: notice of proposed rulemaking in the ''Federal Register'', followed by an opportunity for some level of participation by interested persons, and finally publication of the rule, in most instances at least 30 days before it becomes effective. For a detailed discussion of rulemaking procedures, ''see'' Jeffrey Lubbers’s ''A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking''.
  
Excluded from the coverage of the Act are rulemakings involving military or foreign affairs functions and matters relating to agency management or personnel, public property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts. These exceptions to the Act’s general policy of providing an opportunity for public participation in rulemaking, to foster the fair and informed exercise of agency authority, are “narrowly construed and only reluctantly countenanced.”  They are neither mandatory nor intended to discourage agencies from using public participation procedures. On the contrary, when Congress enacted the APA, it encouraged agencies to use the notice-and-comment procedure in some excepted cases, and many agencies routinely do so in making certain kinds of exempted rules. The Administrative Conference encouraged this trend and called on Congress to eliminate or narrow several of these exemptions.  “Regulatory reform” legislative proposals considered over the years have contained provisions to alter or eliminate several of these exemptions.
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Excluded from the coverage of the APA are rulemakings involving military or foreign affairs functions and matters relating to agency management or personnel, public property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts. The APA’s general policy is to provide an opportunity for public participation in rulemaking, to foster the fair and informed exercise of agency authority; these exceptions are “narrowly construed and only reluctantly countenanced.” ''Am. Fed’n'' ''of Gov't Emps., AFL-CIO v. Block'', 655 F.2d 1153 (D.C. Cir. 1981). They are neither mandatory nor intended to discourage agencies from using public participation procedures. On the contrary, when Congress enacted the APA, it encouraged agencies to use the notice-and-comment procedure in some excepted cases, and many agencies routinely do so in making certain kinds of exempted rules. ACUS encouraged this trend and called on Congress to eliminate or narrow several of these exemptions. “Regulatory reform” legislative proposals considered over the years have contained provisions to alter or eliminate several of these exemptions.
  
Most rulemaking proceedings involve informal rulemaking, where all that the APA requires for public participation is an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments; oral presentations may also be permitted. The published rule must incorporate a concise general statement of its basis and purpose. Despite the brevity of these requirements, it is important to note that Congress has routinely, through other statutes, added procedural requirements that affect various agency programs. These additional statutory requirements may apply to specific agencies or programs or may be governmentwide (such as the Regulatory Flexibility Act). Recent presidents have also imposed additional requirements for rulemaking. (See White House Orders and Memoranda on Rulemaking.) Though courts have sometimes sought to add procedural requirements, the Supreme Court’s decision in Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 435 U.S. 519 (1978), has, to a great extent, limited this kind of judicial activity. In Vermont Yankee, the Supreme Court held that where rulemaking is governed by the (informal) requirements of section 553, as in the case of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s regulation of nuclear power plants, the courts may not require additional procedures.
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Most rulemaking proceedings involve informal rulemaking, where all that the APA requires for public participation is an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments; oral presentations may also be permitted. The published rule must incorporate a concise general statement of its basis and purpose. Despite the brevity of these requirements, Congress has routinely, through other statutes, added procedural requirements that affect various agency programs. These additional statutory requirements may apply to specific agencies or programs or may be government-wide (such as the [[Regulatory Flexibility Act]]). Recent presidents have also imposed additional requirements for rulemaking. ''See'' [[White House Orders, Bulletins, and Memoranda]]. Though courts have sometimes sought to add procedural requirements, the Supreme Court’s decision in [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep435/usrep435519/usrep435519.pdf Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.], 435 U.S. 519 (1978), has, to a great extent, limited this kind of judicial activity. In ''Vermont Yankee'', the Supreme Court held that where rulemaking is governed by the (informal) requirements of section 553, as in the case of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s regulation of nuclear power plants, the courts may not require additional procedures.
  
The APA also provides for formal rulemaking—a procedure employed when rules are required by statute to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Essentially, this procedure requires that the agency issue its rule after the kind of trial-type hearing procedures (§§ 556, 557) normally reserved for adjudicatory orders (discussed below). The Supreme Court, in United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co., 410 U.S. 224 (1973), held that such a procedure was required only where the statute involved specifically requires an “on the record” hearing. Because few statutes do so, formal rulemaking is used infrequently.  However, numerous agency statutes (often called “hybrid rulemaking” statutes) do require some specific procedures beyond the basic notice-and-comment elements of informal rulemaking.
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The APA also provides for formal rulemaking—a procedure employed when rules are required by statute to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Essentially, this procedure requires that the agency issue its rule after the kind of trial-type hearing procedures (§§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim 556], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim 557]) normally reserved for adjudicatory orders. The Supreme Court, in [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep410/usrep410224/usrep410224.pdf United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co.], 410 U.S. 224 (1973), held that such a procedure was required only where the statute involved specifically requires an “on the record” hearing. Because few statutes include this requirement, formal rulemaking is used infrequently.  However, numerous agency statutes (often called “hybrid rulemaking” statutes) do require some specific procedures beyond the basic notice-and-comment elements of informal rulemaking.
  
 
===Negotiated Rulemaking===
 
===Negotiated Rulemaking===
The Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990 establishes a statutory framework for the conduct of negotiated rulemaking, a procedure developed in large part through Administrative Conference–sponsored research. As with other alternative means of dispute resolution (ADR),  negotiated rulemaking uses consensual techniques to produce results, rather than an agency decision based upon its data and conclusions, hopefully aided by public input. Numerous agencies have successfully completed negotiated rules over the years, but it remains an exceptional technique for adopting rules.
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The [[Negotiated Rulemaking Act]] of 1990 establishes a statutory framework for the conduct of negotiated rulemaking, a procedure developed in large part through ACUS–sponsored research. As with other alternative means of dispute resolution (ADR), negotiated rulemaking uses consensual techniques to produce results, rather than an agency decision based upon its data and conclusions, hopefully aided by public input. Numerous agencies have successfully completed negotiated rules over the years, but it remains an exceptional technique for adopting rules.
  
The Negotiated Rulemaking Act clearly establishes regulatory agencies’ authority to use such consensual techniques as negotiated rulemaking without limiting agency innovation. The Act identifies criteria for the discretionary determination by agency heads of whether and when to use negotiated rulemaking. It also sets forth basic requirements for public notice and the conduct of meetings under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.
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The Negotiated Rulemaking Act clearly establishes regulatory agencies’ authority to use such consensual techniques as negotiated rulemaking without limiting agency innovation. It identifies criteria for the discretionary determination by agency heads of whether and when to use negotiated rulemaking and sets forth basic requirements for public notice and the conduct of meetings under the [[Federal Advisory Committee Act]].
  
 
===Adjudication===
 
===Adjudication===
Sections 554, 556, and 557 apply to formal adjudication (i.e., to cases for which an adjudicatory proceeding is required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing).  These sections apply, for example, to proceedings by certain agencies seeking to impose civil money penalties as part of a regulatory enforcement program.  
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Sections [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim 554], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim 556], and [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim 557] apply to formal adjudication (i.e., to cases for which an adjudicatory proceeding is required by statute to be determined on the record after the opportunity for an agency hearing).  These sections apply, for example, to proceedings by certain agencies seeking to impose civil money penalties as part of a regulatory enforcement program.  
  
Section 554(a) specifically exempts six types of proceedings from the requirements of these sections: matters subject to a subsequent de novo trial in court; certain personnel matters other than for administrative law judges; decisions based solely on inspections, tests, or elections; military or foreign affairs functions; cases where an agency acts as agent for a court; and certification of worker representatives. Section 554(b) specifies notice requirements. Section 554(c) provides for an opportunity for submission and consideration of facts, arguments, and informal settlements where practicable. Section 554(d) forbids presiding officers from engaging in ex parte (off-the-record) consultations on facts at issue in the case. The subsection also addresses “separation of functions” by restricting agency employees engaged in investigation or prosecution of a case from supervising the presiding officer or participating or advising in the decision in that or a factually related case (with certain exceptions). Section 554(e) authorizes agencies, in their discretion, to issue declaratory orders that would terminate a controversy or remove uncertainty with respect to matters required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for a hearing.
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim Section 554(a)] specifically exempts six types of proceedings from the requirements of these sections:  
  
Sections 556 and 557 prescribe the specific procedures to be used in formal adjudication.  In brief, a trial-type hearing must be held, conducted either by some or all of the members of the agency or by an administrative law judge (appointed under 5 U.S.C. § 3105). An administrative law judge (ALJ) is normally the presiding officer in formal adjudication. The APA (§ 556(c)) spells out the powers and duties of ALJs (formerly called hearing examiners). It also provides for the independence of ALJs by protecting their tenure (5 U.S.C. § 7521) and pay (5 U.S.C. § 5372) and prohibiting inconsistent duties (5 U.S.C. § 3105). In addition, under 5 U.S.C. § 1305, the Office of Personnel Management has prescribed a special selection procedure for the appointment of ALJs. Currently, there are over 1,900 ALJs in the federal government, the vast majority of which are located in the Social Security Administration. In 2018, the Supreme Court held that ALJs are “Officers of the United States” under the Appointments Clause and must be appointed by the President or a head of a department (Lucia v. S.E.C., 138 S. Ct. 2044 (2018)). Subsequently, the Trump Administration issued Executive Order 13,843, which placed ALJs in the excepted service and afforded agency heads more flexibility in hiring decisions.
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*matters subject to a subsequent de novo trial in court;
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*certain personnel matters other than for administrative law judges;
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*decisions based solely on inspections, tests, or elections;
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*military or foreign affairs functions;
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*cases in which an agency acts as agent for a court; and
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*certification of worker representatives.
  
Section 556 also covers disqualification of presiding officers, burden of proof, and parties’ rights to cross-examination. It provides that the transcript of testimony and exhibits, together with all documents filed in the proceeding, constitutes the exclusive record for decision.
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Section 554(b) specifies notice requirements. Section 554(c) provides for an opportunity for submission and consideration of facts, arguments, and informal settlements where practicable. Section 554(d) forbids presiding officers from engaging in ex parte (off-the-record) consultations on facts at issue in the case. The subsection also addresses “separation of functions” by restricting agency employees engaged in investigation or prosecution of a case from supervising the presiding officer or participating or advising in the decision in that or a factually related case (with certain exceptions). Section 554(e) authorizes agencies, in their discretion, to issue declaratory orders that would terminate a controversy or remove uncertainty with respect to matters required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for a hearing.
  
Section 557 provides that when, as is usually the case, a hearing is not conducted by the agency itself, the presiding officer (normally an ALJ) must issue an initial decision—unless the agency requires that the entire record be certified to the agency for decision. An initial decision automatically becomes the agency’s decision unless appealed or reviewed on motion of the agency. Section 557 provides, in general, an opportunity for parties to submit for consideration their own proposed findings and conclusions, or exceptions to decisions. The record must show the ruling on each finding, conclusion, or exception presented. Section 557(d) was added to the APA by the Government in the Sunshine Act in 1976 to prohibit ex parte communications relevant to the merits of a pending formal agency proceeding. However, where ex parte communications do take place, their content must be placed on the public record, and, if the communication was knowingly made by a party, the presiding officer may require the party to show cause why a decision should not be made adversely affecting the party’s interest.  Most agencies have adopted procedures applicable to their formal hearings (A list of citations appears at the end of the chapter.). The Manual for Administrative Law Judges contains a detailed discussion of procedures for the conduct of hearings and a collection of model forms.
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Sections 556 and 557 prescribe the specific procedures to be used in formal adjudication.  In brief, a trial-type hearing must be held, conducted either by some or all of the members of the agency or by an administrative law judge (ALJ) (appointed under 5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim § 3105]). An ALJ is normally the presiding officer in formal adjudication. The APA ([http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim § 556(c)]) spells out the powers and duties of ALJs, formerly called hearing examiners. It also provides for the independence of ALJs by protecting their tenure (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim § 7521]) and pay (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim § 5372]) and prohibiting inconsistent duties (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim § 3105]). In addition, under 5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim § 1305], the [https://www.opm.gov/services-for-agencies/administrative-law-judges Office of Personnel Management] has prescribed a special selection procedure for the appointment of ALJs. Currently, there are over 1,900 ALJs in the federal government, the vast majority of which are located in the Social Security Administration. In 2018, the Supreme Court held that ALJs are inferior officers under the Appointments Clause of the U.S. Constitution and must be appointed by the President or a head of a department. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/17pdf/17-130_4f14.pdf Lucia v. SEC], 138 S. Ct. 2044 (2018). Subsequently, President Trump issued Executive Order 13843, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2018-07-13/pdf/2018-15202.pdf Excepting Administrative Law Judges From the Competitive Service], which placed ALJs in the excepted service and afforded agency heads more flexibility in hiring decisions.
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim Section 556] also covers disqualification of presiding officers, burden of proof, and parties’ rights to cross-examination. It provides that the transcript of testimony and exhibits, together with all documents filed in the proceeding, constitutes the exclusive record for decision.
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[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim Section 557] provides that when, as is usually the case, a hearing is not conducted by the agency itself, the presiding officer (normally an ALJ) must issue an initial decision—unless the agency requires that the entire record be certified to the agency for decision. An initial decision automatically becomes the agency’s decision unless appealed or reviewed on motion of the agency. Section 557 provides, in general, an opportunity for parties to submit for consideration their own proposed findings and conclusions, or exceptions to decisions. The record must show the ruling on each finding, conclusion, or exception presented. Section 557(d) was added to the APA by the [[Government in the Sunshine Act]] in 1976 to prohibit ex parte communications relevant to the merits of a pending formal agency proceeding. However, where ex parte communications do take place, their content must be placed on the public record, and, if the communication was knowingly made by a party, the presiding officer may require the party to show cause why a decision should not be made adversely affecting the party’s interest. Most agencies have adopted procedures applicable to their formal hearings. The [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/P1%201993%20Mullins%20ALJ%20Manual%203rd%20ed%20%28CP%2013%29_0.pdf Manual for Administrative Law Judges] contains a detailed discussion of procedures for the conduct of hearings and a collection of model forms.
  
 
===Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution===
 
===Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution===
The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act specifically provides agencies with the authority to employ mediation, arbitration, and other consensual methods of dispute resolution in resolving cases under the APA and in other kinds of agency disputes. The legislation specifically establishes a federal policy encouraging ADR in place of more costly, time-consuming adjudication. While no agency is forced to use ADR techniques, the legislation requires each agency head to undertake a review of typical agency litigation and administrative disputes to assess where ADR techniques will be useful.  
+
The [[Administrative Dispute Resolution Act]] (ADRA) specifically provides agencies with the authority to employ mediation, arbitration, and other consensual methods of dispute resolution in resolving cases under the APA and in other kinds of agency disputes. The ADRA specifically establishes a federal policy encouraging ADR in place of more costly, time-consuming adjudication. While no agency is forced to use ADR techniques, the ADRA requires each agency head to undertake a review of typical agency litigation and administrative disputes to assess where ADR techniques will be useful.
  
===Miscellaneous Provisions=== Section 555 states various procedural rights of private parties, which may be incidental to rulemaking, adjudication, or the exercise of any other agency authority. Section 555(b) addresses appearances in agency proceedings by parties, counsel, and other interested persons. Section 555(c) provides that a person compelled to submit data or evidence is entitled to a copy or transcript, except that in nonpublic investigations this may be limited to a right to inspect the official transcript. Additional provisions of section 555 relate to subpoenas and to the requirement of prompt notice of denials of applications, petitions, or other requests made to agencies.
+
===Miscellaneous Provisions===  
 +
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section555&num=0&edition=prelim Section 555] states various procedural rights of private parties, which may be incidental to rulemaking, adjudication, or the exercise of any other agency authority. Section 555(b) addresses appearances in agency proceedings by parties, counsel, and other interested persons. Section 555(c) provides that a person compelled to submit data or evidence is entitled to a copy or transcript, except that in nonpublic investigations this may be limited to a right to inspect the official transcript. Additional provisions of section 555 relate to subpoenas and to the requirement of prompt notice of denials of applications, petitions, or other requests made to agencies.
  
Section 558 is a rarely invoked section of the APA. Section 558(b) makes clear the requirement that agency rules, orders, and sanctions be within the jurisdiction delegated to the agency and otherwise authorized by law. Section 558(c) contains some special notice provisions and other procedural requirements for handling applications, suspensions, revocations, or license renewals.
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section558&num=0&edition=prelim Section 558] is a rarely invoked section of the APA. Section 558(b) makes clear the requirement that agency rules, orders, and sanctions be within the jurisdiction delegated to the agency and otherwise authorized by law. Section 558(c) contains some special notice provisions and other procedural requirements for handling applications, suspensions, revocations, or license renewals.
  
 
==Legislative History==  
 
==Legislative History==  
  
The legislative history of the Administrative Procedure Act begins with the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure in 1941. This report led to the introduction in Congress of the so-called majority and minority bills, respectively designated as S. 675 and S. 674, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. These bills, together with S. 918, formed the basis for extensive hearings held in 1941 before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. In 1945, the House Committee on the Judiciary held brief hearings on various administrative procedure bills, of which H.R. 1203, 79th Cong., 1st Sess., was the precursor of the Act as passed. Also in June 1945, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary issued a comparative print, with comments, which is an essential part of the legislative history. The committee reports on the Act are S. Rep. No. 752, 79th Cong., 1st Sess. and H.R. Rep. No. 1980, 79th Cong., 2d Sess. In October 1945, the attorney general, at the request of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, submitted a letter, with memorandum attached, setting forth the understanding of the Department of Justice as to the purpose and meaning of the various provisions of the bill (S.7). This letter and memorandum constitute Appendix B of the Senate Committee Report and also appear as an appendix in the Attorney General’s Manual.
+
The legislative history of the APA begins with the ''Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure'' (1941). This report led to the introduction in Congress of the so-called majority and minority bills, respectively designated as S. 675 and S. 674, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. These bills, together with S. 918, formed the basis for extensive hearings held in 1941 before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. In 1945, the House Committee on the Judiciary held [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/23/hear-19-1945.pdf brief hearings on various administrative procedure bills], of which H.R. 1203, 79th Cong., was the precursor of the APA as passed. Also in June 1945, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary issued a comparative print with comments, which is an essential part of the legislative history. The committee reports on the APA are [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/03/20/senaterept-752-1945.pdf S. Rep. No. 752] (1945) and [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/06/09/houserept-1980-1946.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 1980] (1946). In October 1945, at the request of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, the Attorney General submitted a letter and attached memorandum that set forth the understanding of the Department of Justice as to the purpose and meaning of the various provisions of the bill (S.7). This letter and memorandum constitute Appendix B of the Senate Committee Report. They also appear as an appendix in the ''Attorney General’s Manual''.
  
The Senate and House debates plus the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, other than the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee, are compiled in S. Doc. No. 248, 79th Cong., 2d Sess. (1946), titled Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46. The Final Report was published as S. Doc. No. 8, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. (1941). The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act (1947) is a contemporaneous interpretive guide to the original language of the Act.
+
The Senate and House debates and the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, other than the ''Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee'', are compiled in S. Doc. No. 248, [https://coast.noaa.gov/data/Documents/OceanLawSearch/Senate%20Document%20No.%2079-248.pdf Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46] (1946). The Final Report was published as ''S. Doc. No. 8'' (1941). The [http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/AttorneyGeneralsManual.pdf Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act] (1947) is a contemporaneous interpretive guide to the original language of the APA.
  
Individual agencies have adopted, within the framework of the APA, procedural rules for the conduct of rulemaking and adjudication. A list of citations to these rules appears below.
+
Individual agencies have adopted procedural rules within the framework of the APA for the conduct of rulemaking and adjudication.
  
The comprehensive A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking (5th ed. 2012) discusses the entire rulemaking process. It was published initially by the Administrative Conference and now by the ABA. The Conference also published a Manual for Administrative Law Judges (3d ed. 1993). The Manual is a handbook of practice in the conduct of hearings. Persons interested in negotiated rulemaking or ADR in APA adjudication should consult the separate ACUS Sourcebooks on these subjects and the other materials listed in the Bibliography sections of those Sourcebook chapters.
+
The comprehensive ''A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking'' (5th ed. 2012) discusses the entire rulemaking process. It was published initially by ACUS and is now published by the ABA. ACUS also published a [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/P1%201993%20Mullins%20ALJ%20Manual%203rd%20ed%20%28CP%2013%29_0.pdf Manual for Administrative Law Judges] (3d ed. 1993), which is a handbook of practice in the conduct of hearings.  
  
The Administrative Conference also sponsored numerous studies of rulemaking and adjudication procedures, and recommended a variety of improvements in agency practice. Its recommendations appeared in the Federal Register and volume one of the Code of Federal Regulations.
+
ACUS has sponsored numerous studies of rulemaking and adjudication procedures and recommended a variety of improvements in agency practice. Its recommendations appeared in the ''Federal Register'' and may be found on its [https://www.acus.gov/recommendations website].
  
 
==Bibliography==
 
==Bibliography==
  
===Legislative History===
+
===Legislative History and Congressional Documents===
  
*Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46, S. Doc. No. 248, 79th Cong., 2d Sess. (1946).
+
*[https://coast.noaa.gov/data/Documents/OceanLawSearch/Senate%20Document%20No.%2079-248.pdf Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46], S. Doc. No. 248 (1946).
  
*Administrative Procedure in Government Agencies, S. Doc. No. 8, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. (1941) (Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure).
+
*Administrative Procedure in Government Agencies, S. Doc. No. 8 (1941) (Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure).
 +
*Report on S. 7, [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/06/09/houserept-1980-1946.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 1980] (1946).
  
*House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary, Report on S. 7, H.R. Rep. No. 1980, 79th Cong., 2d Sess. (1946), reprinted in S. Doc. No. 248 (item 1, above) and in Pike and Fischer Administrative Law (2d), Desk Book Stat. 51.
+
*Report on S. 7, [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/03/20/senaterept-752-1945.pdf S. Rep. No. 752] (1945).
 +
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg64854/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg64854.pdf APA at 65: Is Reform Needed to Create Jobs, Promote Economic Growth, and Reduce Costs?], Hearing Before Subcomm. on Courts, Commercial and Admin. Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. (2011).
  
*Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Report on S. 7, Rep. No. 752, 79th Cong., 1st Sess. (1945), reprinted in S. Doc. No. 248 (item 1, above) and in Pike and Fischer Administrative Law (2d), Desk Book, Stat. 11.3
+
===ACUS Recommendations===
 +
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 +
*68-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/68-1.no-FR.pdf Adequate Hearing Facilities]
 +
*68-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/68-5-ss.pdf Representation of the Poor in Agency Rulemaking of Direct Consequence to Them]
 +
*68-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/68-6.pdf Delegation of Final Decisional Authority Subject to Discretionary Review by the Agency]
 +
*69-8 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/69-8.pdf Elimination of Certain Exemptions from the APA Rulemaking Requirements]
 +
*70-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/70-3.pdf Summary Decision in Agency Adjudication]
 +
*70-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/70-4.pdf Discovery in Agency Adjudication]
 +
*71-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/71-1.pdf Interlocutory Appeal Procedures]
 +
*71-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/71-3.pdf Articulation of Agency Policies]
 +
*71-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/71-6-ss.pdf Public Participation in Administrative Hearings]
 +
*72-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/72-1-ss.pdf Broadcast of Agency Proceedings]
 +
*72-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/72-5.pdf Procedures for the Adoption of Rules of General Applicability]
 +
*73-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/73-5.pdf Elimination of the “Military or Foreign Affairs Function” Exemption from APA Rulemaking Requirements]
 +
*73-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/73-6-ss.pdf Procedures for Resolution of Environmental Issues in Licensing Proceedings]
 +
*74-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/74-11.pdf Subpoena Power in Formal Rulemaking and Formal Adjudication]
 +
*76-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/76-2.pdf Strengthening the Informational and Notice-Giving Functions of the “Federal Register”]
 +
*76-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/76-3.pdf Procedures in Addition to Notice and the Opportunity for Comment in Informal Rulemaking]
 +
*76-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/76-5.pdf Interpretive Rules of General Applicability and Statements of General Policy]
 +
*77-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/77-3.pdf Ex parte Communications in Informal Rulemaking Proceedings]
 +
*78-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/78-3.pdf Time Limits on Agency Actions]
 +
*79-l [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/79-1-with-table.pdf Hybrid Rulemaking Procedures of the Federal Trade Commission]
 +
*79-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/79-4.pdf Public Disclosure Concerning the Use of Cost-Benefit and Similar Analyses in Regulation]
 +
*80-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/80-4.pdf Decisional Officials’ Participation in Rulemaking Proceedings]
 +
*80-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/80-6-ss.pdf Intragovernmental Communications in Informal Rulemaking Proceedings]
 +
*82-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/82-4.pdf Procedures for Negotiating Proposed Regulations]
 +
*83-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/83-2.pdf The “Good Cause” Exemption from APA Rulemaking Requirements]
 +
*85-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/85-5.pdf Procedures for Negotiating Proposed Regulations]
 +
*86-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/86-2.pdf Use of Federal Rules of Evidence in Federal Agency Adjudications]
 +
*86-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/86-6.pdf Petitions for Rulemaking]
 +
*87-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/87-1.pdf Priority Setting and Management of Rulemaking by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration]
 +
*88-7 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/88-7.pdf Valuation of Human Life in Regulatory Decisionmaking]
 +
*88-9 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/88-9.pdf Presidential Review of Agency Rulemaking]
 +
*90-8 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/90-8.pdf Rulemaking and Policymaking in the Medicaid Program]
 +
*92-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/92-2.pdf Agency Policy Statements]
 +
*93-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/93-4.pdf Improving the Environment for Agency Rulemaking]
 +
*95-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/95-3.pdf Review of Existing Agency Regulations]
 +
*95-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/95-4.pdf Procedures for Noncontroversial and Expedited Rulemaking]
 +
*2011-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation-2011-1-Legal-Considerations-in-e-Rulemaking.pdf Legal Considerations in e-Rulemaking]
 +
*2011-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation-2011-2-Rulemaking-Comments.pdf Rulemaking Comments]
 +
*2011-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202011-4%20%28Video%20Hearings%29.pdf Agency Use of Video Hearings: Best Practices and Possibilities for Expansion]
 +
*2011-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/Recommendation-2011-5-Incorporation-by-Reference.pdf Incorporation by Reference]
 +
*2011-8 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/Recommendation-2011-8-E-Rulemaking-Innovations.pdf Agency Innovations in E-Rulemaking]
 +
*2012-1 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final-Recommendation-2012-1-Regulatory-Analysis.pdf Regulatory Analysis Requirements]
 +
*2012-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/Final-Recommendation-2012-2-Midnight-Rules.pdf Midnight Rules]
 +
*2013-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202013-2%20%28Benefit-Cost%20Analysis%29_0.pdf Benefit-Cost Analysis at Independent Regulatory Agencies]
 +
*2013-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Administrative%20Record%20_%20Final%20Recommendation%20_%20Approved_0.pdf Administrative Record in Informal Rulemaking]
 +
*2013-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Social%20Media%20Rec_Final_12_9_13.pdf Social Media in Rulemaking]
 +
*2014-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202014-3%20%28Guidance%20in%20Rulemaking%20Process%29_0.pdf Guidance in the Rulemaking Process]
 +
*2014-4 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202014-4%20%28Ex%20Parte%29_0.pdf “Ex Parte” Communications in Informal Rulemaking]
 +
*2014-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final%20Petitions%20for%20Rulemaking%20Recommendation%20%5B12-9-14%5D.pdf Petitions for Rulemaking]
 +
*2015-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/declaratory-orders-final-recommendation.pdf Declaratory Orders]
 +
*2017-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-2_Negotiated%20Rulemaking.pdf Negotiated Rulemaking and Other Options for Public Engagement]
 +
*2017-3 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-3%20%28Plain%20Language%20in%20Regulatory%20Drafting%29.pdf Plain Language in Regulatory Drafting]
 +
*2017-5 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-5%20%28Agency%20Guidance%20Through%20Policy%20Statements%29_2.pdf Agency Guidance Through Policy Statements]
 +
*2017-6 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-6%20%28Learning%20from%20Regulatory%20Experience%29_0.pdf Learning Through Regulatory Experience]
 +
*2017-7 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202017-7%20%28Regulatory%20Waivers%20and%20Exemptions%29_0.pdf Regulatory Waivers and Exemptions]
 +
*2018-2 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/recommendation-2018-2-severability%20in%20agency%20rulemaking.pdf Severability in Agency Rulemaking]
 +
*2018-7 [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Recommendation%202018-7%20%28Public%20Engagement%20in%20Rulemaking%29.pdf Public Engagement in Rulemaking]
 +
*2019-1 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/agency-guidance-through-interpretive-rules Agency Guidance Through Interpretive Rules]
 +
*2019-2 [https://www.acus.gov/recommendation/agency-recruitment-and-selection-administrative-law-judges Agency Recruitment and Selection of Administrative Law Judges]
 +
</div>
  
 
===Other Government Documents===
 
===Other Government Documents===
  
Administrative Conference of the United States, selected recommendations (<nowiki>http://www.acus.gov/recommendations</nowiki>):
+
*Dep’t of Justice, [http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/AttorneyGeneralsManual.pdf Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act] (1947).
 
+
*Office of the Fed. Register, [https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/write/handbook/ddh.pdf Document Drafting Handbook].
68-1    Adequate Hearing Facilities
+
*Cong. Research Serv., [https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/IF10003.pdf An Overview of Federal Regulations and the Rulemaking Process] (2019).
 
 
68-5 Representation of the Poor in Agency Rulemaking of Direct Consequence to Them
 
 
 
68-6 Delegation of Final Decisional Authority Subject to Discretionary Review by the Agency
 
 
 
69-8  Elimination of Certain Exemptions from the APA Rulemaking Requirements
 
 
 
70-3 Summary Decision in Agency Adjudication
 
 
 
70-4 Discovery in Agency Adjudication
 
 
 
71-1  Interlocutory Appeal Procedures
 
 
 
71-3  Articulation of Agency Policies
 
 
 
71-6  Public Participation in Administrative Hearings
 
 
 
72-1  Broadcast of Agency Proceedings
 
 
 
72-5  Procedures for the Adoption of Rules of General Applicability
 
 
 
73-5 Elimination of the “Military or Foreign Affairs Function” Exemption from APA Rulemaking Requirements
 
 
 
73-6 Procedures for Resolution of Environmental Issues in Licensing Proceedings
 
 
 
 74-1 Subpoena Power in Formal Rulemaking and Formal Adjudication
 
 
 
76-2 Strengthening the Informational and Notice-Giving Functions of the “Federal Register”
 
 
 
76-3 Procedures in Addition to Notice and the Opportunity for Comment in Informal Rulemaking
 
 
 
76-5  Interpretive Rules of General Applicability and Statements of General Policy
 
 
 
77-3  Ex parte Communications in Informal Rulemaking Proceedings
 
 
 
78-3  Time Limits on Agency Actions
 
 
 
79-l  Hybrid Rulemaking Procedures of the Federal Trade Commission
 
 
 
79-4   Public Disclosure Concerning the Use of Cost—Benefit and Similar Analyses in Regulation
 
 
 
80-4  Decisional Officials’ Participation in Rulemaking Proceedings
 
 
 
80-6  Intragovernmental Communications in Informal Rulemaking Proceedings
 
 
 
82-4  Procedures for Negotiating Proposed Regulations
 
 
 
83-2 The “Good Cause” Exemption from APA Rulemaking Requirements
 
 
 
83-3 Agency Structures for Review of Decisions of Presiding Officers under the Administrative Procedure Act
 
 
 
85-2  Agency Procedures for Performing Regulatory Analysis of Rules
 
 
 
85-5  Procedures for Negotiating Proposed Regulations
 
 
 
86-2  Use of Federal Rules of Evidence in Federal Agency Adjudications
 
 
 
86-6  Petitions for Rulemaking
 
 
 
87-1  Priority Setting and Management of Rulemaking by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
 
 
 
88-7  Valuation of Human Life in Regulatory Decision making
 
 
 
88-9  Presidential Review of Agency Rulemaking
 
 
 
90-8  Rulemaking and Policymaking in the Medicaid Program
 
 
 
92-2  Agency Policy Statements
 
 
 
93-4  Improving the Environment for Agency Rulemaking
 
 
 
95-3 Review of Existing Agency Regulations
 
 
 
95-4 Procedures for Noncontroversial and Expedited Rulemaking
 
 
 
2011-1 Legal Considerations in e-Rulemaking
 
 
 
2011-2 Rulemaking Comments
 
 
 
2011-4 Agency Use of Video Hearings: Best Practices and Possibilities for Expansion
 
 
 
2011-5 Incorporation by Reference
 
 
 
2011-8  Agency Innovations in E-Rulemaking
 
 
 
2012-1 Regulatory Analysis Requirements
 
 
 
2012-2 Midnight Rules
 
 
 
2013-2  Benefit-Cost Analysis
 
 
 
2013-4 Administrative Record in Informal Rulemaking
 
 
 
2013-5 Social Media in Rulemaking
 
 
 
2014-3 Guidance in the Rulemaking Process
 
 
 
2014-4 “Ex Parte” Communications in Informal Rulemaking
 
 
 
2014-6  Petitions for Rulemaking
 
 
 
2015-3  Declaratory Orders
 
 
 
2017-2 Negotiated Rulemaking and Other Options for Public Engagement
 
 
 
2017-3 Plain Language in Regulatory Drafting
 
 
 
2017-5 Agency Guidance Through Policy Statements
 
 
 
2017-6 Learning Through Regulatory Experience
 
 
 
2017-7 Regulatory Waivers and Exemptions
 
 
 
2018-2 Severability in Agency Rulemaking
 
 
 
U.S. Department of Justice, Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act (1947), reprinted in Appendix 2 of this chapter.
 
 
 
U.S. Office of the Federal Register, Document Drafting Handbook.
 
  
 
===Other Resources===
 
===Other Resources===
  
 
====Books====
 
====Books====
 
+
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
*Alfred C. Aman & William T. Mayton, HORNBOOK ON ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (West Academic Publishing, 3d ed. 2014).
+
*Alfred C. Aman & William T. Mayton, ''Hornbook on Administrative Law'' (West Acad. Publ’g, 3d ed. 2014).
 
+
*Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts eds''.'', ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' (ABA, 2d ed. 2015).
*Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts eds., A GUIDE TO JUDICIAL AND POLITICAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL AGENCIES (Am. Bar. Ass’n, 2d ed. 2015).
+
*William F. Fox, ''Understanding Administrative Law'' (LexisNexis, 6th ed. 2012).
 
+
*William Funk & Richard Seamon, ''Administrative Law: Examples & Explanations'' (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2015).
*William F. Fox, UNDERSTANDING ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (LexisNexis, 6th ed. 2012).
+
*Ronald Levin & Jeffrey S. Lubbers, ''Administrative Law and Process in a Nutshell'' (West Nutshell Series, 6th ed. 2017).
 
+
*Jeffrey Litwak ed., ''A Guide to Federal Agency Adjudication'' (ABA, 2d ed. 2014).
*William Funk & Richard Seamon, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: EXAMPLES & EXPLANATIONS (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2015).
+
*Jeffrey S. Lubbers, ''A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking'' (ABA, 6th ed. 2018).
 
+
*Richard J. Pierce, ''Administrative Law Treatise'' (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2009).
*Ernest Gellhorn & Ronald Levin, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND PROCESS IN A NUTSHELL (West Nutshell Series, 5th ed. 2006).
+
*Richard J. Pierce, Sidney A. Shapiro & Paul R. Verkuil, ''Administrative Law and Process'' (Found. Press, 5th ed. 2009).
 
+
*Thomas O. Sargentich ed., ''Administrative Law Anthology'' (Anderson Publ’g Co. [now Lexis-Nexis], 1994).
*Jeffrey Litwak ed., A GUIDE TO FEDERAL AGENCY ADJUDICATION (Am. Bar. Ass’n, 2d ed. 2014).
+
*Peter H. Schuck, ''Foundations of Administrative Law'' (LexisNexis, 3d ed. 2012).
 
+
*Peter Strauss ed., ''Administrative Law Stories'' (Found. Press, 2006).
*Jeffrey S. Lubbers, A GUIDE TO FEDERAL AGENCY RULEMAKING (Am. Bar Ass’n, 5th ed. 2012).
+
*Peter L. Strauss, ''An Introduction to Administrative Justice in the United States'' (Carolina Acad. Press, 2d revision, 2002).
 
+
*ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, ''A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law'' (ABA, 2d ed. 2013) (1st ed. published at 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1 (2002)).
*Richard J. Pierce, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW TREATISE (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2009).
+
</div>
 
 
*Richard J. Pierce, Sidney A. Shapiro & Paul R. Verkuil, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND PROCESS (Foundation Press, 5th ed. 2009).
 
 
 
*Thomas O. Sargentich ed., ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ANTHOLOGY (Anderson Publishing Co. [now Lexis-Nexis], 1994).
 
 
 
*Peter H. Schuck, FOUNDATIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (LexisNexis, 3d ed. 2012).
 
 
 
*Peter Strauss ed., ADMINISTRATIVE LAW STORIES (Foundation Press 2006).
 
 
 
*Peter L. Strauss, AN INTRODUCTION TO ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES (Carolina Academic Press, 2d revision, 2002).
 
 
 
*Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, A BLACKLETTER STATEMENT OF FEDERAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (2d ed.) (Am. Bar. Ass’n, 2d ed. 2013) (1st ed. originally published at 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1 (2002)).
 
  
 
====Periodicals (aside from law reviews generally)====
 
====Periodicals (aside from law reviews generally)====
  
*[http://www.administrativelawreview.org/ Administrative Law Review] (published by American University Washington College of Law and the ABA Section on Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice)
+
*[http://www.administrativelawreview.org/ Administrative Law Review] (published by American University Washington College of Law and the ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice)
  
*[https://www.americanbar.org/groups/administrative_law/publications/administrativeandregulatorylawnews.html Administrative & Regulatory Law News] (quarterly newsletter of ABA Section on Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice)
+
*[https://www.americanbar.org/groups/administrative_law/publications/administrativeandregulatorylawnews.html Administrative & Regulatory Law News] (quarterly newsletter of the ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice)
  
*Developments in Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice (Annual series beginning 1998-99 and continuing to 2014) (Jeffrey Lubbers ed., ABA, Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice).
+
*''Developments in Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice'' (Annual series beginning 1998-99 and continuing to 2014) (Jeffrey Lubbers ed., ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice).
  
*Bloomberg BNA, Administrative Law, Third Series: A multivolume loose-leaf service, updated monthly. The Desk Book includes coverage of key statutes, legislative history, implementation memoranda, and agency rules; the Digest system organizes administrative law into 14 major topics (e.g., Costs and Fees, Judicial Review, Rulemaking), with multiple subtopics for each; and the Decisions volumes report significant federal court and agency decisions on administrative procedure and judicial review. Digests of salient points of law are placed under the appropriate subtopics for easy retrieval. A 12-page newsletter, the AdLaw Bulletin, containing case highlights and stories on agency and legislative developments, accompanies each monthly release and is kept in separate binder. The Bulletin also contains practice-oriented articles by outside experts on hot topics.
+
*Bloomberg BNA, ''Administrative Law, Third Series'': A multivolume loose-leaf service, updated monthly. The ''Desk Book'' includes coverage of key statutes, legislative history, implementation memoranda, and agency rules; the ''Digest'' system organizes administrative law into 14 major topics (e.g., Costs and Fees, Judicial Review, Rulemaking), with multiple subtopics for each; and the ''Decisions'' volumes report significant federal court and agency decisions on administrative procedure and judicial review. Digests of salient points of law are placed under the appropriate subtopics for easy retrieval. A 12-page newsletter, the ''AdLaw Bulletin'', containing case highlights and stories on agency and legislative developments, accompanies each monthly release and is kept in separate binder. The ''Bulletin'' also contains practice-oriented articles by outside experts on hot topics.
  
 
====Selected Articles and Other Documents====
 
====Selected Articles and Other Documents====
 +
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 +
*Michael Asimow, ''Interim-Final Rules: Making Haste Slowly'', 51 Admin. L. Rev. 703 (1999).
  
*Michael Asimow, Interim-Final Rules: Making Haste Slowly, 51 ADMIN. L. REV. 703 (1999).
+
*Kent Barnett, [https://www.vanderbiltlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2013/04/Barnett_66_Vand_L_Rev_797.pdf Resolving the ALJ Quandary], 66 Vand. L. Rev. 797 (2013).
  
*Kent Barnett, Resolving the ALJ Quandary, 66 VAND. L. REV. 797 (2013).
+
*Leland E. Beck, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Agency%20Practices%20and%20Judicial%20Review%20of%20Administrative%20Records%20in%20Informal%20Rulemaking.pdf Agency Practices and Judicial Review of Administrative Records in Informal Rulemaking] (May 14, 2013) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Jack M. Beermann & Jennifer L. Mascott, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Submitted%20final%20draft%20JB.pdf Research Report on Federal Agency ALJ Hiring after Lucia and Executive Order 13843] (May 29, 2019) (report to ACUS).
  
*Leland E. Beck, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Agency%20Practices%20and%20Judicial%20Review%20of%20Administrative%20Records%20in%20Informal%20Rulemaking.pdf Agency Practices and Judicial Review of Administrative Records in Informal Rulemaking] (report to Admin. Conf. of the U.S.) (May 14, 2013).
+
*Eric Biber & J. B. Ruhl, [https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3780&context=dlj The Permit Power Revisited: The Theory and Practice of Regulatory Permits in the Administrative State], 54 Duke L.J. 133 (2014).
  
*Eric Biber & J.B. Ruhl, The Permit Power Revisited: The Theory and Practice of Regulatory Permits in the Administrative State, 54 DUKE L.J. 133 (2014).
+
*Barbara Brandon & Robert Carlitz, [https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/Conferences/rpp_rulemaking/Brandon-Carlitz_Online_Rulemaking.pdf Online Rulemaking and Other Tools for Strengthening Our Civil Infrastructure], 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1421 (2002).
  
*Barbara Brandon & Robert Carlitz, Online Rulemaking and Other Tools for Strengthening Our Civil Infrastructure, 54 ADMIN. L. REV. 1421 (2002).
+
*Emily S. Bremer, [https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/85770/OSLJ_V78N5_1169.pdf The Agency Declaratory Judgment], 78 Ohio St. L.J. 1169 (2017).
 +
*Cary Coglianese & David Lehr, [https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2736&context=faculty_scholarship Regulating by Robot: Administrative Decision Making in the Machine-Learning Era], 105 Geo. L.J. 1147 (2017).
  
*Cary Coglianese & David Lehr, Regulating by Robot: Administrative Decision Making in the Machine-Learning Era, 105 GEO. L.J. 1147 (2017).
+
*Roni A. Elias, [https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1732&context=elr The Legislative History of the Administrative Procedure Act], 27 Fordham Envtl. L. Rev. 207 (2016).
 +
*Blake Emerson & Ronald M. Levin, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ACUS%20IR%20final%20report.5.28.2019.pdf Agency Guidance Through Interpretive Rules: Research and Analysis] (May 28, 2019) (report to ACUS).
  
*Roni A. Elias, The Legislative History of the Administrative Procedure Act, 27 FORDHAM ENVTL. L. REV. 207 (2016)
+
*Daniel A. Farber & Anne Joseph O’Connell, [https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3273&context=facpubs The Lost World of Administrative Law], 92 Tex. L. Rev. 1137 (2014).
  
*Daniel A. Farber & Anne Joseph O’Connell, The Lost World of Administrative Law, 92 TEX. L. REV. 1137 (2014).
+
*Cynthia R. Farina, Mary Newhart, Josiah Heidt & CeRI, [https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=ceri Rulemaking vs. Democracy: Judging and Nudging Public Participation That Counts], 2 Mich. J. Envtl. & Admin. L. 123 (2012).
  
*Cynthia R. Farina, Mary Newhart, Josiah Heidt & CeRI, Rulemaking vs. Democracy: Judging and Nudging Public Participation That Counts, 2 MICH. J. ENVTL. & ADMIN. L. 123 (2012).
+
*David L. Franklin, [https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=5233&context=ylj Legislative Rules, Nonlegislative Rules, and the Perils of the Short Cut], 120 Yale L.J. 276 (2010).
  
*David L. Franklin, Legislative Rules, Nonlegislative Rules, and the Perils of the Short Cut, 120 YALE L.J. 276 (2010).
+
*William Funk, [http://www.pennstatelawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Funk-article.pdf Slip Slidin’ Away: The Erosion of APA Adjudication], 122 Penn. St. L. Rev. 141 (2017).
  
*William Funk, Slip Slidin’ Away: The Erosion of APA Adjudication, 122 PENN. ST. L. REV. 141 (2017).
+
*William Funk, ''When Is a “Rule” a Regulation? Marking a Clear Line Between Nonlegislative Rules and Legislative Rules'', 54 Admin. L. Rev. 659 (2002).
  
*William Funk, When Is a “Rule” a Regulation? Marking a Clear Line Between Nonlegislative Rules and Legislative Rules, 54 ADMIN. L. REV. 659 (2002).
+
*Elena Kagan, [http://cdn.harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/vol114_kagan.pdf Presidential Administration], 114 Harv. L. Rev. 2245 (2001).
 +
*Ronald Levin, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1995-04%20Pt.2%20Procedures%20for%20Noncontroversial%20and%20Expedited%20Rulemaking.pdf Direct Final Rulemaking], 64 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1 (1995) (report to ACUS).  
  
*Elena Kagan, Presidential Administration, 114 Harv. L. Rev. 2245 (2001).
+
*Jeffrey S. Lubbers, ''APA Adjudication: Is the Quest for Uniformity Faltering?'', 10 Admin. L. J. Am. U. 65 (1996).
  
*Jeffrey S. Lubbers, APA Adjudication: Is the Quest for Uniformity Faltering?, 10 ADMIN. L.J. AM. U. 65 (1996).
+
*Jeffrey Lubbers, ''The Transformation of the U.S. Rulemaking Process—For Better or Worse'', 34 Ohio N. Univ. L. Rev. 469 (2008).
  
*Jeffrey Lubbers, The Transformation of the U.S. Rulemaking Process—For Better or Worse, 34 OHIO N. UNIV. L. REV. 469 (2008).
+
*Jeffrey Lubbers & Blake Morant, ''A Reexamination of Federal Agency Use of Declaratory Orders'', 56 Admin. L. Rev. 1097 (2004).
  
*Jeffrey Lubbers & Blake Morant, A Reexamination of Federal Agency Use of Declaratory Orders, 56 ADMIN. L. REV. 1097 (2004).
+
*M. Elizabeth Magill, [https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5270&context=uclrev Agency Choice of Policymaking Form], 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1383 (2004).
  
*Elizabeth Magill, Agency Choice of Policymaking Form, 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1383 (2004).
+
*John Manning, ''Nonlegislative Rules'', 72 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 893 (2004).
  
*John Manning, Nonlegislative Rules, 72 GEO. WASH. L. REV. 893 (2004).
+
*Nina A. Mendelson, [https://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.bing.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1649&context=articles Should Mass Comments Count?], 2 Mich. J. Envtl. & Admin. L. 173 (2012).
  
*Nina A. Mendelson, Should Mass Comments Count?, 2 MICH. J. ENVTL. & ADMIN. L. 173 (2012).
+
*Thomas Merrill & Kathryn Watts, ''Agency Rules with the Force of Law: The Original Convention'', 116 Harv. L. Rev. 467 (2002).
  
*Thomas Merrill & Kathryn Watts, Agency Rules with the Force of Law: The Original Convention, 116 HARV. L. REV. 467 (2002).
+
*Beth Simone Noveck, [https://digitalcommons.nyls.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1781&context=fac_articles_chapters The Electronic Revolution in Rulemaking], 53 Emory L. J. 433 (2004).
  
*Beth Simone Noveck, The Electronic Revolution in Rulemaking, 53 EMORY L.J. 433 (2004).
+
*Elizabeth G. Porter & Kathryn A. Watts, [https://www.nyulawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/NYULawReview-91-5-PorterWatts_0.pdf Visual Rulemaking], 91 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1183 (2016).
  
*Elizabeth G. Porter & Kathryn A. Watts, Visual Rulemaking, 91 N.Y.U. L. REV. 1183 (2016).
+
*Edward Rubin, [https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2940&context=clr It’s Time to Make the Administrative Procedure Act Administrative], 89 Cornell L. Rev. 95 (2003).
  
*Edward Rubin, It’s Time to Make the Administrative Procedure Act Administrative, 89 CORNELL L. REV. 95 (2003).
+
*Michael Sant’Ambrogio & Glen Staszewski, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Public%20Engagement%20in%20Rulemaking%20Final%20Report.pdf Public Engagement with Agency Rulemaking] (Nov. 19, 2018) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Reuel Schiller, [https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1704&context=faculty_scholarship Rulemaking’s Promise: Administrative Law and Legal Culture in the 1960s and 1970s], 53 Admin. L. Rev. 1139 (2001).
  
*Reuel Schiller, Rulemaking’s Promise: Administrative Law and Legal Culture in the 1960s and 1970s, 53 ADMIN. L. REV. 1139 (2001).
+
*Jason A. Schwartz & Richard L. Revesz, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final%2520Petitions%2520for%2520Rulemaking%2520Report%2520%255B11-5-14%255D.pdf Petitions for Rulemaking] (Nov. 5, 2014) (report to ACUS).
  
*Jason A. Schwartz & Richard L. Revesz, Petitions for Rulemaking (Nov. 5, 2014) (report to Admin. Conf. of the U.S.).
+
*Esa Sferra-Bonistalli, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Final%20Ex%20Parte%20Communications%20in%20Informal%20Rulemaking%20%5B5-1-14%5D_0.pdf “Ex Parte” Communications in Informal Rulemaking] (May 1, 2014) (report to ACUS).
  
*Esa Sferra-Bonistalli, “Ex Parte” Communications in Informal Rulemaking (May 1, 2014) (report to Admin. Conf. of the U.S.).
+
*Sidney Shapiro, Elizabeth Fisher & Wendy Wagner, [http://wakeforestlawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/SFW_LawReview_10.12.pdf The Enlightenment of Administrative Law: Looking Inside the Agency for Legitimacy], 47 Wake Forest L. Rev. 463 (2012).
  
*Sidney Shapiro, Elizabeth Fisher & Wendy Wagner, The Enlightenment of Administrative Law: Looking Inside the Agency for Legitimacy, 47 WAKE FOREST L. REV. 463 (2012).
+
*George Shepherd, ''Fierce Compromise: The Administrative Procedure Act Emerges from New Deal Politics'', 90 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1557 (1996).
  
*George Shepherd, The Administrative Procedure Act Emerges from New Deal Politics, 90 NW. L. REV. 1557 (1996).
+
*Kevin Stack, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Guidance%20in%20the%20Rulemaking%20Process%20Revised%20Draft%20Report%205_16_14%20ks%20final.pdf Guidance in the Rulemaking Process: Evaluating Preambles, Regulatory Text, and Freestanding Documents as Vehicles for Regulatory Guidance] (Jun. 10, 2014) (report to ACUS).
  
*Kevin Stack, Guidance in the Rulemaking Process: Evaluating Preambles, Regulatory Text, and Freestanding Documents as Vehicles for Regulatory Guidance (Jun. 10, 2014) (report to Admin. Conf. of the U.S.).
+
*Wendy Wagner, [http://wisconsinlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/13-Wagner.pdf The Participation-Centered Model Meets Administrative Process], 2013 Wis. L. Rev. 671.
  
*Wendy Wagner, The Participation-Centered Model Meets Administrative Process, 2013 WIS. L. REV. 671.
+
*Wendy Wagner et al., [https://www.nyulawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/NYULawReview-92-1-Wagner-et-al.pdf Dynamic Rulemaking], 92 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 183 (2017).
  
*Wendy Wagner et al., Dynamic Rulemaking, 92 N.Y.U. L. REV. 183 (2017).
+
*Christopher J. Walker, [https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/pages/docs/c_walker_apa_modernization.pdf Modernizing the Administrative Procedure Act], 69 Admin. L. Rev. 629 (2017).
 
+
</div>
*Christopher J. Walker, Modernizing the Administrative Procedure Act, 69 ADMIN. L. REV. 629 (2017).
 
  
 
====Web Addresses of Note====
 
====Web Addresses of Note====
 +
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 +
*Law Librarians’ Society of Washington, DC, [http://www.llsdc.org/federal-administrative-law-a-brief-overview Federal Administrative Law: A Brief Overview]
  
*Overview of Federal Administrative Law. D.C. Law Librarians’ Society compilation. <nowiki>http://www.llsdc.org/federal-administrative-law-a-brief-overview</nowiki>
+
*[http://fall.law.fsu.edu/admin/ ABA Administrative Procedure Database]. Developed and maintained with the cooperation and support of the ABA Section of Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice and the Florida State University College of Law. Contains links to federal agency home pages, state resources, historical materials, and other useful resources.
  
*ABA Administrative Procedure Database. Developed and maintained with the cooperation and support of the American Bar Association’s Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice and the Florida State University College of Law. Contains links to federal agency home pages, state resources, historical materials (such as Attorney General’s Manual on the APA), and other useful links. www.law.fsu.edu/library/admin/
+
*[https://www.acus.gov/ ACUS]
  
*Administrative Conference of the United States. Contains links to past (1968-95) and current activities. <nowiki>https://www.acus.gov</nowiki>
+
*[http://www.Congress.gov Congress]
  
*Congress, www.Congress.gov
+
*[http://www.federalregister.gov Federal Register]
 +
*[http://www.gao.gov Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports]
  
*Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports. <nowiki>http://www.gao.gov</nowiki>
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/ Government Printing Office]
  
*Government Printing Office. Lots of official gov’t documents. <nowiki>http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/</nowiki>
+
*[http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/index.html LSU Government Documents & Microforms Library]. Links to federal agencies and subunits from all three branches.
  
*LSU’s government website. A complete link to federal agencies and subunits from all three branches. <nowiki>http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/index.html</nowiki>
+
*[http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/index.htm National Partnership for Reinventing Government] (the Clinton “Reinventing Government Initiative”).
  
*National Partnership for Reinventing Government (the Clinton “Reinventing Government Initiative”). Archived at <nowiki>http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/index.htm</nowiki>
+
*[https://www.archives.gov/federal-register Office of the Federal Register]
 +
**[https://www.federalregister.gov/ Federal Register] (1994 forward)
  
*Office of the Federal Register. Contains (searchable) Federal Register (1994 forward), Code of Federal Regulations, Semiannual Regulatory Agenda, Public Laws (1994 forward), U.S. Government Manual (1995 forward), Weekly Compilation of Presidential Docs. (1993 forward). http:// www.archives.gov/federal-register
+
*[https://www.regulations.gov/ Regulations.gov]. The federal government’s “one-stop shop” for filing comments in rulemaking.
  
*Regulations.Gov. The federal government’s “one-stop shop” for filing comments in rulemaking. www.regulations.gov
+
*[http://www.reginfo.gov Regulatory Information Service Center] (Unified Agenda of Regs. 1995-present)
  
*Regulatory Information Service Center (Unified Agenda of Regs. 1995-present). www.reginfo.gov
+
*[https://www.sba.gov/advocacy SBA Office of Advocacy]
  
*SBA Office of Advocacy. Lots of useful links. www.sba.gov/advo
+
*[https://www.regulationwriters.com/ The Regulatory Group, Inc.]
  
*The Regulatory Group, Inc. Useful links from a private consulting firm. www.reg-group.com
+
*[http://thecre.com/ The Center for Regulatory Effectiveness]. extensive archive of [http://www.thecre.com/ombpapers/centralrev.html “Inside Administration” papers].
  
*The Center for Regulatory Effectiveness, <nowiki>http://thecre.com/</nowiki>. Business-oriented group site with a wealth of useful information on regulation, especially the Data Quality Act. Has extensive archive of “Inside Administration” papers at <nowiki>http://www.thecre.com/ombpapers/centralrev.html</nowiki>.
+
*[http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/home.nsf U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit].
  
*U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. <nowiki>http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/home.nsf</nowiki>
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/search/criteria.shtml U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library—U.S. Code]
  
*U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library—U.S. Code (searchable form). <nowiki>http://uscode.house.gov/search/criteria.shtml</nowiki>
+
*[https://www.oge.gov/ U.S. Office of Government Ethics]
  
*U.S. Office of Government Ethics (regulations, opinions), www.usoge.gov
+
*[https://www.supremecourt.gov/index.html U.S. Supreme Court].
  
*U.S. Supreme Court. www.supremecourtus.gov/index.html
+
*[https://guides.lib.virginia.edu/administrative_decisions University of Virginia School of Law Federal Administrative Decisions and Actions Page] (containing links to the various administrative actions that fall outside the scope of the Code of Federal Regulations or ''Federal Register'').
  
*University of Virginia School of Law Federal Administrative Decisions and Actions Page. Contains links to the various administrative actions that fall outside the scope of the Code of Federal Regulations or Federal Register. <nowiki>http://www2.lib.virginia.edu/govtinfo/fed_decisions_agency.html</nowiki>
+
*[https://www.usa.gov/ USA.gov].
 +
</div>
  
*USA.gov. The federal government’s comprehensive portal for government documents. www.usa.gov
+
===Agency Regulations===
 +
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
 +
*'''Agriculture''':
 +
**Rulemaking and other notice procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=se7.1.1_127&rgn=div8 7 C.F.R. § 1.27])
 +
**Petitions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=se7.1.1_128&rgn=div8 7 C.F.R. § 1.28])
 +
**Administrative Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=sp7.1.1.h&rgn=div6 7 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. H])
 +
**Rules of Practice under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=pt7.2.47&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 47])
 +
**Rules of Practice Governing Withdrawal of Inspection and Grading Services ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c4e1f8d17625129ba2c700031775fe41&mc=true&node=pt7.2.50&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 50])
 +
**Federal Seed Act Rules of Practice ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=da54524c8bd0938f07a3293308ace342&mc=true&node=pt7.3.202&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 202])
 +
**General Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=da54524c8bd0938f07a3293308ace342&mc=true&node=pt7.8.900&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 900])
 +
*'''Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board''':
 +
**Practice and Procedures for Compliance Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ed4ab61717f3e0cb996e918741bdb0d4&mc=true&node=pt36.3.1150&rgn=div5 36 C.F.R. Part 1150])
 +
*'''Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection''':
 +
**Special Rules of Practice (Regulation L) ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=bae0be64373cae37b503d4afc3f570a1&mc=true&node=pt12.8.1012&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 1012])
 +
**Procedure Related to Rulemaking ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=bae0be64373cae37b503d4afc3f570a1&mc=true&node=pt12.9.1074&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 1074])
 +
*'''Coast Guard (Homeland Security)''':
 +
**Rules of Practice, Procedure, and Evidence for Formal Administrative Proceedings of the Coast Guard ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=d9ccdb0113d92efd69c371638403cc26&mc=true&node=pt33.1.20&rgn=div5 33 C.F.R. Part 20])
 +
**Marine Investigation Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt46.1.5&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 5])
 +
***Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=01ac5838225a00b79711130bce996b16&mc=true&node=sp46.1.5.h&rgn=div6 Subpt. H])
 +
***Appeals ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=01ac5838225a00b79711130bce996b16&mc=true&node=sp46.1.5.j&rgn=div6 Subpt. J])
 +
***Review of Administrative Law Judge’s Decisions in Cases Where Charges Have Been Found Proved ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=01ac5838225a00b79711130bce996b16&mc=true&node=sp46.1.5.k&rgn=div6 Subpt. K])
 +
*'''Commodity Futures Trading Commission''':
 +
**Rules of Practice ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae8720924b8368bbc413d20436205d3c&mc=true&node=pt17.1.10&rgn=div5 17 C.F.R. Part 10])
 +
**Rules Relating to Reparations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae8720924b8368bbc413d20436205d3c&mc=true&node=pt17.1.12&rgn=div5 17 C.F.R. Part 12])
 +
**Public Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae8720924b8368bbc413d20436205d3c&mc=true&node=pt17.1.13&rgn=div5 17 C.F.R. Part 13])
 +
*'''Consumer Product Safety Commission''':
 +
**Rules of Practice for Adjudicative Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1025&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1025])
 +
**Procedure for Petitioning for Rulemaking ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1051&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1051])
 +
**Procedural Regulations for Informal Oral Presentations in Proceedings before the Consumer Product Safety Commission ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1052&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1052])
 +
*'''Environmental Protection Agency''':
 +
**Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt40.1.22&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 22])
 +
**Rules Governing Issuance of and Administrative Hearings on Interim Status Corrective Action Orders ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt40.1.24&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 24])
 +
**Public Participation in Programs under the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Clean Water Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.1.25&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 25])
 +
**Public Hearings on Effluent Standards for Toxic Pollutants ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.24.104&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 104])
 +
**Employee Protection Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.24.108&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 108])
 +
**Rules of Practice Governing Hearings, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Arising from Refusals to Register, Cancellation of Registrations, Changes of Classifications, Suspensions of Registrations and other Hearings Called Pursuant to Section 6 of the Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.26.164&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 164])
 +
**Rules of Practice Governing Proceedings under the Noise Control Act of 1972 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06e74a5cc382f9618646d23650f18a33&mc=true&node=pt40.27.209&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 209])
 +
*'''Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt12.5.308&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 308])
 +
*'''Federal Emergency Management Agency''':
 +
**Rulemaking, Policy, and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=06eb1e1ac47b6f58bb5d1ab9b3eed70c&mc=true&node=pt44.1.1&rgn=div5 44 C.F.R. Part 1])
 +
**Administrative Hearing Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt44.1.68&rgn=div5 44 C.F.R. Part 68])
 +
*'''Federal Energy Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt18.1.385&rgn=div5 18 C.F.R. Part 385])
 +
*'''Federal Labor Relations Authority''':
 +
**Representation Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt5.3.2422&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 2422])
 +
**Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt5.3.2423&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 2423])
 +
*'''Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt29.9.2700&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 2700])
 +
*'''Federal Reserve Board''':
 +
**Rules of Procedure ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt12.4.262&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 262])
 +
**Rules of Practice for Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt12.4.263&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 263])
 +
*'''Federal Trade Commission''':
 +
**General Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=844e0e738bf8aaddf7df134f99c91f98&mc=true&n=pt16.1.1&r=PART&ty=HTML 16 C.F.R. Part 1])
 +
***Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=sp16.1.1.b&rgn=div6 Subpt. B])
 +
***Rules Promulgated Under Authority Other Than Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=sp16.1.1.c&rgn=div6 Subpt. C])
 +
**Rules of Practice for Adjudicative Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt16.1.3&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 3])
 +
**Ex parte communications ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=se16.1.4_17&rgn=div8 16 C.F.R. § 4.7])
 +
*'''Federal Communications Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt47.1.1&rgn=div5 47 C.F.R. Part 1])
 +
*'''Health and Human Services''':
 +
**'''Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services''':
 +
***Civil Money Penalties, Assessments, and Exclusions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=814bea1a37089e09f7a88c9917061af7&mc=true&node=pt42.2.402&rgn=div5 42 C.F.R. Part 402])
 +
***Appeals under the Medicare Part B Program ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=sp42.2.405.h&rgn=div6 42 C.F.R. Part 405, Subpt. H])
 +
***Determinations, Redeterminations, Reconsiderations, and Appeals under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) [[https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=sp42.2.405.i&rgn=div6 42 C.F.R. Part 405, Subpt. I]]
 +
**'''Food and Drug Administration''':
 +
***Administrative Practices and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.10&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 10])
 +
***Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.11&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 11])
 +
***Formal Evidentiary Public Hearing ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.12&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 12])
 +
***Public Hearing before a Public Board of Inquiry ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.13&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 13])
 +
***Public Hearing before a Public Advisory Committee ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.14&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 14])
 +
***Public Hearing before the Commissioner ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.15&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 15])
 +
***Regulatory Hearing before the Food and Drug Administration ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.16&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 16])
 +
***Civil Money Penalties Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ceedfecdbe7c8be71be3ea4ab8e030a2&mc=true&node=pt21.1.17&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 17])
 +
*'''Housing and Urban Development''':
 +
**Hearing Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt24.1.26&rgn=div5 24 C.F.R. Part 26])
 +
**Procedures to present views and evidence ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=se24.5.3282_1152&rgn=div8 24 C.F.R. § 3282.152])
 +
*'''Interior''':
 +
**Department Hearings and Appeals Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt43.1.4&rgn=div5 43 C.F.R. Part 4])
 +
**Civil Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt50.1.11&rgn=div5 50 C.F.R. Part 11])
 +
*'''International Trade Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt19.3.210&rgn=div5 19 C.F.R. Part 210])
 +
*'''Justice''':
 +
**'''Drug Enforcement Administration''':
 +
***Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, and Dispensers of Controlled Substances: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1301_137.sg4&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1301.41-.46])
 +
***Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, and Dispensers of Controlled Substances: Action on Application for Registration: Revocation or Suspension of Registration ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1301_129.sg3&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1303.31-.37])
 +
***Schedules of Controlled Substances: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=dc277a3b4ca2afc319396c9e1f89cfc1&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1308_135.sg8&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1308.41-.45])
 +
***Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, Importers, and Exporters of List I Chemicals: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=dc277a3b4ca2afc319396c9e1f89cfc1&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1309_146.sg5&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1309.51-.55])
 +
***Importation and Exportation of Controlled Substances: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=dc277a3b4ca2afc319396c9e1f89cfc1&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1312_132.sg3&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1312.41-.47])
 +
***Importation and Exportation of List I and List II Chemicals: Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sg21.9.1313_142.sg3&rgn=div7 21 C.F.R. §§ 1313.51-.57])
 +
***Administrative Functions, Practices, and Procedures: Administrative Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp21.9.1316.d&rgn=div6 21 C.F.R. §§ 1316.41-.68])
 +
**Newspaper Preservation Act ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=se28.2.48_110&rgn=div8 28 C.F.R. §§ 48.10])
 +
*'''Labor'''
 +
**Black Lung Benefits Cases ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=8f2ed31378cd99aa0a5c8c8be974e8c4&mc=true&n=pt20.4.725&r=PART&ty=HTML 20 C.F.R. Part 725]):
 +
***Adjudication Officers; Parties and Representatives ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.725.d&rgn=div6 Subpt. D])
 +
***Adjudication of Claims by the District Director ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.725.e&rgn=div6 Subpt. E])
 +
***Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.725.f&rgn=div6 Subpt. F])
 +
**Longshoremen’s and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Cases ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.4.702.c&rgn=div6 20 C.F.R. Part 702, Subpt. C])
 +
**'''Occupational Safety and Health Administration''':
 +
***Rules of Procedure for Variances, Limitations, Variations, Tolerances, and Exemptions under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.5.1905&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 1905])
 +
***Rules of Procedure for Promulgating, Modifying, or Revoking Occupational Safety or Health Standards ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.7.1911&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 1911])
 +
**'''Office of Federal Contract Compliance''':
 +
***General Enforcement; Compliance Review and Complaint Procedure ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=417042c8815a3a4ccb35245d0564f4a4&mc=true&n=sp41.1.60_61.b&r=SUBPART&ty=HTML 41 C.F.R. Part 60-1, Subpt. B])
 +
***Rules of Practice for Administrative Proceedings to Enforce Equal Opportunity under Executive Order 11246 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt41.1.60_630&rgn=div5 41 C.F.R. Part 60-30])
 +
**Other Cases:
 +
***Rules of Practice for Administrative Proceedings Enforcing Labor Standards in Federal and Federally Assisted Construction Contracts and Federal Service Contracts ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.1.6&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 6])
 +
***Practice before the Administrative Review Board with regard to Federal Service Contracts ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.1.8&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 8])
 +
*'''Merit Systems Protection Board''':
 +
**Practices and Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt5.3.1201&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 1201])
 +
**Procedures for Review of Rules and Regulations of the Office of Personnel Management ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt5.3.1203&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 1203])
 +
**Practices and Procedures for Appeals and Stay Requests of Personnel Actions Allegedly Based on Whistleblowing or Other Protected Activity ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt5.3.1209&rgn=div5 5 C.F.R. Part 1209])
 +
*'''National Credit Union Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt12.7.747&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 747])
 +
*'''National Labor Relations Board''':
 +
**Statements of Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.2.101&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 101])
 +
**Rules and Regulations, Series 8 ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.2.102&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 102])
 +
*'''National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Commerce)''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp15.3.904.c&rgn=div6 15 C.F.R. Part 904, Subpt. C])
 +
*'''Nuclear Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt10.1.2&rgn=div5 10 C.F.R. Part 2])
 +
*'''Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt29.9.2200&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 2200])
 +
*'''Postal Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp39.1.3001.a&rgn=div6 39 C.F.R. Part 3001, Subpt. A])
 +
*'''Postal Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title39/39CIsubchapN.tpl 39 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Subchapter N])
 +
*'''Securities and Exchange Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp17.3.201.d&rgn=div6 17 C.F.R. Part 201, Subpt. D])
 +
*'''Small Business Administration''':
 +
**Rules of Procedure Governing Cases before the Office of Hearings and Appeals ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt13.1.134&rgn=div5 13 C.F.R. Part 134])
 +
**Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=pt13.1.142&rgn=div5 13 C.F.R. Part 142])
 +
*'''Social Security Administration''':
 +
**Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.2.404.j&rgn=div6 20 C.F.R. Part 404, Subpt. J])
 +
**Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd4https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=f5932a8cbd45047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.2.416.n&rgn=div65047604eb41e81595ffce&mc=true&node=sp20.2.404.j&rgn=div6 20 C.F.R. Part 416, Subpt. N])
 +
*'''State''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt22.1.128&rgn=div5 22 C.F.R. Part 128])
 +
*'''Surface Transportation Board''':
 +
**Procedures Governing Informal Rulemaking Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1110&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1110])
 +
**Complaint and Investigation Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1111&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1111])
 +
**Modified Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1112&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1112])
 +
**Oral Hearing ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1113&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1113])
 +
**Evidence; Discovery ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1114&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1114])
 +
**Appellate Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1115&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1115])
 +
**Oral Argument before the Board ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1116&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1116])
 +
**Petitions (For Relief) Not Otherwise Covered ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1117&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1117])
 +
**Compliance with Board Decisions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=103b9c43b059313f7d79827415e8bef6&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1119&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1119])
 +
*'''Transportation'''
 +
**'''Federal Aviation Administration''':
 +
***General Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt14.1.11&rgn=div5 14 C.F.R. Part 11])
 +
***Rules of Procedure for FAA Hearings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=sp14.1.13.d&rgn=div6 14 C.F.R. Part 13, Subpt. D])
 +
**'''Federal Highway Administration''':
 +
***Rules of Practice for FMCSA Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.5.386&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 386])
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures - Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.5.389&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 389])
 +
**'''Federal Maritime Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt46.9.502&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 502])
 +
**'''Maritime Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt46.8.201&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 201])
 +
**'''National Highway Traffic Safety Administration''':
 +
***Adjudicative Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.6.511&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 511])
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.6.553&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 553])
 +
**'''National Transportation Safety Board''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.7.821&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 821])
 +
**'''Office of the Secretary''':
 +
***Rules of Practice in Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt14.4.302&rgn=div5 14 C.F.R. Part 302])
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.1.5&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 5])
 +
**'''Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration''':
 +
***Rulemaking Procedures ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt49.2.106&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 106])
 +
***Enforcement ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=sp49.2.107.d&rgn=div6 49 C.F.R. Part 107, Subpt. D])
 +
*'''Treasury''':
 +
**'''Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt27.2.71&rgn=div5 27 C.F.R Part 71])
 +
**'''Comptroller of the Currency''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt12.1.19&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 19])
 +
**'''Internal Revenue Service''':
 +
***Statement of Procedural Rules ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=pt26.22.601&rgn=div5 26 C.F.R. Part 601])
 +
***Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=32b03586d8fd3ae911e0d96ae11341d6&mc=true&node=sp31.1.10.d&rgn=div6 31 C.F.R. Part 10, Subpt. D])
 +
</div>
  
===Agency Procedural Rules:===
+
==Statutory Provisions==
 
 
Agriculture . . . . 7 C.F.R. §§ 1.27-.28, 1.130-.160, Parts 47, 50, 202, 900
 
 
 
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 C.F.R. Part 1150 Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 C.F.R. Parts 1012, 1074
 
 
 
Coast Guard (Homeland Security) . . . . . . . . . 33 C.F.R. Part 20, 46 C.F.R. §§ 5.501-.807
 
 
 
Commerce
 
 
 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 C.F.R. Part 904 (Subpt. C)
 
 
 
Commodity Futures Trading Commission . . . . . 17 C.F.R. Parts 10, 12, 13
 
 
 
Consumer Product Safety Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 C.F.R. Parts 1025, 1051, 1052
 
 
 
Environmental Protection Agency . . . . . . . . 40 C.F.R. Parts 22, 24, 25, 104, 108, 164, 209
 
 
 
Federal Communications Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 C.F.R. Part 1
 
 
 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 C.F.R. Part 308
 
 
 
Federal Emergency Management Agency . . . . . . . . . 44 C.F.R. Parts 1, 68
 
 
 
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 C.F.R. Part 385
 
 
 
Federal Labor Relations Authority . . . . . . . . . . . 5 C.F.R. Parts 2422, 2423
 
 
 
Federal Maritime Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 C.F.R. Part 502
 
 
 
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 C.F.R. Part 2700
 
 
 
Federal Reserve Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 C.F.R. Parts 262, 263
 
 
 
Federal Trade Commission . . . . . . . . . 16 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpts. B & C; Part 3, § 4.7
 
 
 
Health and Human Services
 
 
 
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services . . . . . . . . . . 42 C.F.R. Part 402, Part 405, Subpts. H & I
 
 
 
Food and Drug Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 C.F.R. Parts 10–17
 
 
 
Housing and Urban Development . . . . . . 24 C.F.R. Part 26, § 3282.152
 
 
 
Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 C.F.R. Part 4; 50 C.F.R. Part 11
 
 
 
International Trade Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 C.F.R. Part 210
 
 
 
Justice
 
 
 
Drug Enforcement Administration . . . . . . .21 C.F.R. §§ 1301.41-.46, §§ 1303.31-.37, §§ 1308.41-.45, §§ 1309.51-.55, §§ 1312.41-.47, §§ 1313.51-.57, §§ 1316.41-.68
 
 
 
Newspaper Preservation Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 C.F.R. §§ 48.10
 
 
 
Labor
 
 
 
Black Lung Benefits Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 C.F.R. Part 725, Subpts. D, E, F
 
 
 
Longshoremen’s and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 C.F.R. Part 702, Subpt. C
 
 
 
Office of Federal Contract Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 C.F.R. §§ 60-1.21-.26, Part 60-30
 
 
 
Other Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 C.F.R. Parts 6, 8
 
 
 
Merit Systems Protection Board . . . . . . . 5 C.F.R. Parts 1201, 1203, 1209
 
 
 
National Credit Union Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 C.F.R. Part 747
 
 
 
National Labor Relations Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 C.F.R. Parts 101, 102
 
 
 
National Transportation Safety Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 C.F.R. Part 821
 
 
 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C.F.R. Part 2
 
 
 
Occupational Safety and Health
 
 
 
Administration (Labor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 C.F.R. Parts 1905, 1911
 
 
 
Occupational Safety and Health Review on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 C.F.R. Part 2200
 
 
 
Postal Regulatory Commission . . . . . . . . . 39 C.F.R. Part 3001, Subpt. A
 
 
 
Postal Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Subchapter N
 
 
 
Securities and Exchange Commission . . . . . 17 C.F.R. Part 201, Subpt. D
 
 
 
Small Business Administration . . . . . . . . . 13 C.F.R. Parts 134, 142
 
 
 
Social Security Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.900-.996, §§ 416.1400-.1494; 42 C.F.R.
 
 
 
State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 C.F.R. Part 128
 
 
 
Surface Transportation Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 C.F.R. Parts 1110-1119
 
 
 
Transportation
 
 
 
Federal Aviation Administration 14 C.F.R. Part 11, Part 13, Subpt. D
 
 
 
Federal Highway Administration . . . . . . . . . 49 C.F.R. Parts 386, 389
 
 
 
Maritime Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 C.F.R. Part 201
 
 
 
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 C.F.R. Parts 511, 553
 
 
 
Office of the Secretary . . . . . . . 14 C.F.R. Part 302; 49 C.F.R. Part 5
 
 
 
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... . . . . . . . . 49 C.F.R. Part 106, Part 107, Subpt. D
 
 
 
Treasury
 
 
 
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau . . . . . . 27 C.F.R Part 71
 
 
 
Comptroller of the Currency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 C.F.R. Part 19
 
 
 
Internal Revenue Service . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 C.F.R. Part 601; 31 C.F.R. Part 10, Subpt. D
 
 
 
==Appendix:==
 
 
 
1. Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551, 553–59, 701–06,1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, 7521.
 
 
 
2. U.S. Department of Justice, Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act (1947).
 
  
 
Administrative Procedure Act
 
Administrative Procedure Act
  
Title V, U. S. Code
+
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
+
Title 5 U.S. Code
Chapter 5—Administrative Procedure
 
 
 
§ 551. Definitions
 
 
 
§ 552. Public information; agency rules, opinions, orders, records, and proceedings
 
 
 
§ 552a. Records about individuals
 
 
 
§ 552b. Open meetings
 
 
 
§ 553. Rule making
 
 
 
§ 554. Adjudications
 
 
 
§ 555. Ancillary matters
 
 
 
§ 556. Hearings; presiding employees; powers and duties; burden of proof; evidence; record as basis of decision
 
 
 
§ 557. Initial decisions; conclusiveness; review by agency; submissions by
 
 
 
parties; contents of decisions; record
 
 
 
§ 558. Imposition of sanctions; determination of applications for licenses; suspension, revocation, and expiration of licenses
 
 
 
§ 559. Effect on other laws; effect of subsequent statute
 
 
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki> * * *
 
 
 
§ 1305. Administrative law judges
 
 
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki> * * *
 
 
 
§ 3105. Appointment of administrative law judges
 
 
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki> * * *
 
 
 
§ 3344. Details; administrative law judges
 
 
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki> * * *
 
 
 
§ 5372. Administrative law judges
 
 
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki> * * *
 
  
§ 7521. Actions against administrative law judges
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter5/subchapter2&edition=prelim Chapter 5, Subchapter II—Administrative Procedure]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section551&num=0&edition=prelim § 551. Definitions]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552&num=0&edition=prelim § 552. Public information; agency rules, opinions, orders, records, and proceedings]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552a&num=0&edition=prelim § 552a. Records about individuals]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section552b&num=0&edition=prelim § 552b. Open meetings]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section553&num=0&edition=prelim § 553. Rule making]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section554&num=0&edition=prelim § 554. Adjudications]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section555&num=0&edition=prelim § 555. Ancillary matters]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section556&num=0&edition=prelim § 556. Hearings; presiding employees; powers and duties; burden of proof; evidence; record as basis of decision]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section557&num=0&edition=prelim § 557. Initial decisions; conclusiveness; review by agency; submissions by parties; contents of decisions; record]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section558&num=0&edition=prelim § 558. Imposition of sanctions; determination of applications for licenses; suspension, revocation, and expiration of licenses]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section559&num=0&edition=prelim § 559. Effect on other laws; effect of subsequent statute]
 +
*Other Provisions
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section1305&num=0&edition=prelim § 1305. Administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3105&num=0&edition=prelim § 3105. Appointment of administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section3344&num=0&edition=prelim § 3344. Details; administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section5372&num=0&edition=prelim § 5372. Administrative law judges]
 +
**[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section7521&num=0&edition=prelim § 7521. Actions against administrative law judges]
 +
</div>

Latest revision as of 10:54, 11 March 2021

5 U.S.C. §§ 551–559, 701–706, 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, 7521 (2012); originally enacted by Pub. L. No. 79-404, 60 Stat. 237, Ch. 324, §§ 1–12, June 11, 1946.

The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) as originally enacted was repealed by Pub. L. No. 89-554, 80 Stat. 381, Sept. 6, 1966, as part of the general revision of title 5 of the United States Code. Its provisions were incorporated into title 5 of the United States Code. Although the original section numbers are used sometimes, it is actually an error to use the original section numbers unless one is referring to the APA prior to its codification in 1966. In this volume all references to the Act are to sections of title 5.

Section 552 has been revised significantly since 1946 and is commonly known as the Freedom of Information Act. Section 552a (the Privacy Act) was added to the APA in 1974 and has been amended several times since. Section 552b (the Government in the Sunshine Act) was added in 1976 and amended once. Sections 701–706 pertaining to judicial review are discussed and set forth separately in Judicial Review of Agency Action. Two significant laws relating to rulemaking and adjudication were enacted in 1990—the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 571–584) and the Negotiated Rulemaking Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 561–570)—which are discussed separately.

Overview

Attempts to regularize federal administrative procedures go back at least to the 1930s. Early in 1939, at the suggestion of the attorney general, President Roosevelt asked the attorney general to appoint a distinguished committee to study existing administrative procedures and to formulate recommendations. The Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure, chaired by Dean Acheson, produced a series of monographs on agency functions and submitted its Final Report to the President and the Congress in 1941. These materials, as well as extensive hearings held before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1941, are primary historical sources for the APA.

The APA was signed into law by President Truman on June 11, 1946. In the months that followed, the Department of Justice compiled a manual of advice and interpretation of its various provisions. The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act, published in 1947, remains the principal guide to the structure and intent of the APA. The Manual states the purposes of the APA as follows:

  1. To require agencies to keep the public currently informed of their organization, procedures, and rules,
  2. To provide for public participation in the rulemaking process,
  3. To prescribe uniform standards for the conduct of formal rulemaking and adjudicatory proceedings (i.e., proceedings required by statute to be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing), and
  4. To restate the law of judicial review.

The APA imposes upon agencies certain procedural requirements for two modes of agency decision making: rulemaking and adjudication. In general, the term “agency” refers to any authority of the government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency—but excluding the Congress, the courts, and the governments of territories, possessions, or the District of Columbia. Definitions of other terms may be found in section 551.

Structure of the Administrative Procedure Act

The APA has two major subdivisions: sections 551 through 559, dealing in general with agency procedures, and sections 701 through 706, dealing in general with judicial review. In addition, several sections dealing with administrative law judges (§§ 1305, 3105, 3344, 5372, and 7521) are scattered through title 5 of the United States Code.

The structure of the APA is shaped around the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, with different sets of procedural requirements prescribed for each. Rulemaking is agency action that regulates the future conduct of persons through the formulation and issuance of an agency statement designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy. It is essentially legislative in nature because of its future general applicability and its concern for policy considerations. By contrast, adjudication is concerned with determination of past and present rights and liabilities. The result of an adjudicative proceeding is the issuance of an “order.” (Licensing decisions are considered to be adjudication.)

The line separating these two modes of agency action is not always clear because agencies engage in a great variety of actions. Most agencies use rulemaking to formulate future policy, though there is no bar to announcing policy statements in adjudicatory orders. Agencies normally use a combination of rulemaking and adjudication to effectuate their programs. The APA definition of a “rule,” somewhat confusingly, speaks of an “agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect.” The words “or particular” were apparently included in the definition to encompass such actions as the setting of rates or the approval of corporate reorganizations, to be carried out under the relatively flexible procedures governing rulemaking.

Beyond the distinction between rulemaking and adjudication, the APA subdivides each of these categories of agency action into formal and informal proceedings. Whether a particular rulemaking or adjudication proceeding is considered to be “formal” depends on whether the proceeding is required by statute to be “on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing” (5 U.S.C. §§ 553(c), 554(a)). The APA prescribes elaborate procedures for both formal rulemaking and formal adjudication, and relatively minimal procedures for informal rulemaking. The APA prescribes virtually no procedures for the remaining category of informal adjudication, which is by far the most prevalent form of governmental action.

Rulemaking

Section 553 sets forth the basic requirements for rulemaking: notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, followed by an opportunity for some level of participation by interested persons, and finally publication of the rule, in most instances at least 30 days before it becomes effective. For a detailed discussion of rulemaking procedures, see Jeffrey Lubbers’s A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking.

Excluded from the coverage of the APA are rulemakings involving military or foreign affairs functions and matters relating to agency management or personnel, public property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts. The APA’s general policy is to provide an opportunity for public participation in rulemaking, to foster the fair and informed exercise of agency authority; these exceptions are “narrowly construed and only reluctantly countenanced.” Am. Fed’n of Gov't Emps., AFL-CIO v. Block, 655 F.2d 1153 (D.C. Cir. 1981). They are neither mandatory nor intended to discourage agencies from using public participation procedures. On the contrary, when Congress enacted the APA, it encouraged agencies to use the notice-and-comment procedure in some excepted cases, and many agencies routinely do so in making certain kinds of exempted rules. ACUS encouraged this trend and called on Congress to eliminate or narrow several of these exemptions. “Regulatory reform” legislative proposals considered over the years have contained provisions to alter or eliminate several of these exemptions.

Most rulemaking proceedings involve informal rulemaking, where all that the APA requires for public participation is an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments; oral presentations may also be permitted. The published rule must incorporate a concise general statement of its basis and purpose. Despite the brevity of these requirements, Congress has routinely, through other statutes, added procedural requirements that affect various agency programs. These additional statutory requirements may apply to specific agencies or programs or may be government-wide (such as the Regulatory Flexibility Act). Recent presidents have also imposed additional requirements for rulemaking. See White House Orders, Bulletins, and Memoranda. Though courts have sometimes sought to add procedural requirements, the Supreme Court’s decision in Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 435 U.S. 519 (1978), has, to a great extent, limited this kind of judicial activity. In Vermont Yankee, the Supreme Court held that where rulemaking is governed by the (informal) requirements of section 553, as in the case of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s regulation of nuclear power plants, the courts may not require additional procedures.

The APA also provides for formal rulemaking—a procedure employed when rules are required by statute to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Essentially, this procedure requires that the agency issue its rule after the kind of trial-type hearing procedures (§§ 556, 557) normally reserved for adjudicatory orders. The Supreme Court, in United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co., 410 U.S. 224 (1973), held that such a procedure was required only where the statute involved specifically requires an “on the record” hearing. Because few statutes include this requirement, formal rulemaking is used infrequently.  However, numerous agency statutes (often called “hybrid rulemaking” statutes) do require some specific procedures beyond the basic notice-and-comment elements of informal rulemaking.

Negotiated Rulemaking

The Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990 establishes a statutory framework for the conduct of negotiated rulemaking, a procedure developed in large part through ACUS–sponsored research. As with other alternative means of dispute resolution (ADR), negotiated rulemaking uses consensual techniques to produce results, rather than an agency decision based upon its data and conclusions, hopefully aided by public input. Numerous agencies have successfully completed negotiated rules over the years, but it remains an exceptional technique for adopting rules.

The Negotiated Rulemaking Act clearly establishes regulatory agencies’ authority to use such consensual techniques as negotiated rulemaking without limiting agency innovation. It identifies criteria for the discretionary determination by agency heads of whether and when to use negotiated rulemaking and sets forth basic requirements for public notice and the conduct of meetings under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

Adjudication

Sections 554, 556, and 557 apply to formal adjudication (i.e., to cases for which an adjudicatory proceeding is required by statute to be determined on the record after the opportunity for an agency hearing).  These sections apply, for example, to proceedings by certain agencies seeking to impose civil money penalties as part of a regulatory enforcement program.

Section 554(a) specifically exempts six types of proceedings from the requirements of these sections:

  • matters subject to a subsequent de novo trial in court;
  • certain personnel matters other than for administrative law judges;
  • decisions based solely on inspections, tests, or elections;
  • military or foreign affairs functions;
  • cases in which an agency acts as agent for a court; and
  • certification of worker representatives.

Section 554(b) specifies notice requirements. Section 554(c) provides for an opportunity for submission and consideration of facts, arguments, and informal settlements where practicable. Section 554(d) forbids presiding officers from engaging in ex parte (off-the-record) consultations on facts at issue in the case. The subsection also addresses “separation of functions” by restricting agency employees engaged in investigation or prosecution of a case from supervising the presiding officer or participating or advising in the decision in that or a factually related case (with certain exceptions). Section 554(e) authorizes agencies, in their discretion, to issue declaratory orders that would terminate a controversy or remove uncertainty with respect to matters required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for a hearing.

Sections 556 and 557 prescribe the specific procedures to be used in formal adjudication.  In brief, a trial-type hearing must be held, conducted either by some or all of the members of the agency or by an administrative law judge (ALJ) (appointed under 5 U.S.C. § 3105). An ALJ is normally the presiding officer in formal adjudication. The APA (§ 556(c)) spells out the powers and duties of ALJs, formerly called hearing examiners. It also provides for the independence of ALJs by protecting their tenure (5 U.S.C. § 7521) and pay (5 U.S.C. § 5372) and prohibiting inconsistent duties (5 U.S.C. § 3105). In addition, under 5 U.S.C. § 1305, the Office of Personnel Management has prescribed a special selection procedure for the appointment of ALJs. Currently, there are over 1,900 ALJs in the federal government, the vast majority of which are located in the Social Security Administration. In 2018, the Supreme Court held that ALJs are inferior officers under the Appointments Clause of the U.S. Constitution and must be appointed by the President or a head of a department. Lucia v. SEC, 138 S. Ct. 2044 (2018). Subsequently, President Trump issued Executive Order 13843, Excepting Administrative Law Judges From the Competitive Service, which placed ALJs in the excepted service and afforded agency heads more flexibility in hiring decisions.

Section 556 also covers disqualification of presiding officers, burden of proof, and parties’ rights to cross-examination. It provides that the transcript of testimony and exhibits, together with all documents filed in the proceeding, constitutes the exclusive record for decision.

Section 557 provides that when, as is usually the case, a hearing is not conducted by the agency itself, the presiding officer (normally an ALJ) must issue an initial decision—unless the agency requires that the entire record be certified to the agency for decision. An initial decision automatically becomes the agency’s decision unless appealed or reviewed on motion of the agency. Section 557 provides, in general, an opportunity for parties to submit for consideration their own proposed findings and conclusions, or exceptions to decisions. The record must show the ruling on each finding, conclusion, or exception presented. Section 557(d) was added to the APA by the Government in the Sunshine Act in 1976 to prohibit ex parte communications relevant to the merits of a pending formal agency proceeding. However, where ex parte communications do take place, their content must be placed on the public record, and, if the communication was knowingly made by a party, the presiding officer may require the party to show cause why a decision should not be made adversely affecting the party’s interest. Most agencies have adopted procedures applicable to their formal hearings. The Manual for Administrative Law Judges contains a detailed discussion of procedures for the conduct of hearings and a collection of model forms.

Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution

The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) specifically provides agencies with the authority to employ mediation, arbitration, and other consensual methods of dispute resolution in resolving cases under the APA and in other kinds of agency disputes. The ADRA specifically establishes a federal policy encouraging ADR in place of more costly, time-consuming adjudication. While no agency is forced to use ADR techniques, the ADRA requires each agency head to undertake a review of typical agency litigation and administrative disputes to assess where ADR techniques will be useful.

Miscellaneous Provisions

Section 555 states various procedural rights of private parties, which may be incidental to rulemaking, adjudication, or the exercise of any other agency authority. Section 555(b) addresses appearances in agency proceedings by parties, counsel, and other interested persons. Section 555(c) provides that a person compelled to submit data or evidence is entitled to a copy or transcript, except that in nonpublic investigations this may be limited to a right to inspect the official transcript. Additional provisions of section 555 relate to subpoenas and to the requirement of prompt notice of denials of applications, petitions, or other requests made to agencies.

Section 558 is a rarely invoked section of the APA. Section 558(b) makes clear the requirement that agency rules, orders, and sanctions be within the jurisdiction delegated to the agency and otherwise authorized by law. Section 558(c) contains some special notice provisions and other procedural requirements for handling applications, suspensions, revocations, or license renewals.

Legislative History

The legislative history of the APA begins with the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure (1941). This report led to the introduction in Congress of the so-called majority and minority bills, respectively designated as S. 675 and S. 674, 77th Cong., 1st Sess. These bills, together with S. 918, formed the basis for extensive hearings held in 1941 before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. In 1945, the House Committee on the Judiciary held brief hearings on various administrative procedure bills, of which H.R. 1203, 79th Cong., was the precursor of the APA as passed. Also in June 1945, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary issued a comparative print with comments, which is an essential part of the legislative history. The committee reports on the APA are S. Rep. No. 752 (1945) and H.R. Rep. No. 1980 (1946). In October 1945, at the request of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, the Attorney General submitted a letter and attached memorandum that set forth the understanding of the Department of Justice as to the purpose and meaning of the various provisions of the bill (S.7). This letter and memorandum constitute Appendix B of the Senate Committee Report. They also appear as an appendix in the Attorney General’s Manual.

The Senate and House debates and the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, other than the Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee, are compiled in S. Doc. No. 248, Administrative Procedure Act—Legislative History 1944-46 (1946). The Final Report was published as S. Doc. No. 8 (1941). The Attorney General’s Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act (1947) is a contemporaneous interpretive guide to the original language of the APA.

Individual agencies have adopted procedural rules within the framework of the APA for the conduct of rulemaking and adjudication.

The comprehensive A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking (5th ed. 2012) discusses the entire rulemaking process. It was published initially by ACUS and is now published by the ABA. ACUS also published a Manual for Administrative Law Judges (3d ed. 1993), which is a handbook of practice in the conduct of hearings.

ACUS has sponsored numerous studies of rulemaking and adjudication procedures and recommended a variety of improvements in agency practice. Its recommendations appeared in the Federal Register and may be found on its website.

Bibliography

Legislative History and Congressional Documents

  • Administrative Procedure in Government Agencies, S. Doc. No. 8 (1941) (Final Report of the Attorney General’s Committee on Administrative Procedure).
  • Report on S. 7, H.R. Rep. No. 1980 (1946).

ACUS Recommendations

Other Government Documents

Other Resources

Books

  • Alfred C. Aman & William T. Mayton, Hornbook on Administrative Law (West Acad. Publ’g, 3d ed. 2014).
  • Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts eds., A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies (ABA, 2d ed. 2015).
  • William F. Fox, Understanding Administrative Law (LexisNexis, 6th ed. 2012).
  • William Funk & Richard Seamon, Administrative Law: Examples & Explanations (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2015).
  • Ronald Levin & Jeffrey S. Lubbers, Administrative Law and Process in a Nutshell (West Nutshell Series, 6th ed. 2017).
  • Jeffrey Litwak ed., A Guide to Federal Agency Adjudication (ABA, 2d ed. 2014).
  • Jeffrey S. Lubbers, A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking (ABA, 6th ed. 2018).
  • Richard J. Pierce, Administrative Law Treatise (Aspen Publishers, 5th ed. 2009).
  • Richard J. Pierce, Sidney A. Shapiro & Paul R. Verkuil, Administrative Law and Process (Found. Press, 5th ed. 2009).
  • Thomas O. Sargentich ed., Administrative Law Anthology (Anderson Publ’g Co. [now Lexis-Nexis], 1994).
  • Peter H. Schuck, Foundations of Administrative Law (LexisNexis, 3d ed. 2012).
  • Peter Strauss ed., Administrative Law Stories (Found. Press, 2006).
  • Peter L. Strauss, An Introduction to Administrative Justice in the United States (Carolina Acad. Press, 2d revision, 2002).
  • ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law (ABA, 2d ed. 2013) (1st ed. published at 54 Admin. L. Rev. 1 (2002)).

Periodicals (aside from law reviews generally)

  • Administrative Law Review (published by American University Washington College of Law and the ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice)
  • Developments in Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice (Annual series beginning 1998-99 and continuing to 2014) (Jeffrey Lubbers ed., ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice).
  • Bloomberg BNA, Administrative Law, Third Series: A multivolume loose-leaf service, updated monthly. The Desk Book includes coverage of key statutes, legislative history, implementation memoranda, and agency rules; the Digest system organizes administrative law into 14 major topics (e.g., Costs and Fees, Judicial Review, Rulemaking), with multiple subtopics for each; and the Decisions volumes report significant federal court and agency decisions on administrative procedure and judicial review. Digests of salient points of law are placed under the appropriate subtopics for easy retrieval. A 12-page newsletter, the AdLaw Bulletin, containing case highlights and stories on agency and legislative developments, accompanies each monthly release and is kept in separate binder. The Bulletin also contains practice-oriented articles by outside experts on hot topics.

Selected Articles and Other Documents

  • Michael Asimow, Interim-Final Rules: Making Haste Slowly, 51 Admin. L. Rev. 703 (1999).
  • William Funk, When Is a “Rule” a Regulation? Marking a Clear Line Between Nonlegislative Rules and Legislative Rules, 54 Admin. L. Rev. 659 (2002).
  • Jeffrey S. Lubbers, APA Adjudication: Is the Quest for Uniformity Faltering?, 10 Admin. L. J. Am. U. 65 (1996).
  • Jeffrey Lubbers, The Transformation of the U.S. Rulemaking Process—For Better or Worse, 34 Ohio N. Univ. L. Rev. 469 (2008).
  • Jeffrey Lubbers & Blake Morant, A Reexamination of Federal Agency Use of Declaratory Orders, 56 Admin. L. Rev. 1097 (2004).
  • John Manning, Nonlegislative Rules, 72 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 893 (2004).
  • Thomas Merrill & Kathryn Watts, Agency Rules with the Force of Law: The Original Convention, 116 Harv. L. Rev. 467 (2002).
  • Elizabeth G. Porter & Kathryn A. Watts, Visual Rulemaking, 91 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1183 (2016).
  • George Shepherd, Fierce Compromise: The Administrative Procedure Act Emerges from New Deal Politics, 90 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1557 (1996).

Web Addresses of Note

  • ABA Administrative Procedure Database. Developed and maintained with the cooperation and support of the ABA Section of Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice and the Florida State University College of Law. Contains links to federal agency home pages, state resources, historical materials, and other useful resources.
  • Regulations.gov. The federal government’s “one-stop shop” for filing comments in rulemaking.

Agency Regulations

Statutory Provisions

Administrative Procedure Act

Title 5 U.S. Code