Difference between revisions of "Judicial Review of Agency Action"

From acus wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Selected Books and Articles)
(Selected Books and Articles)
 
(20 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
  
5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim 701-706] (2012), originally enacted as [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/01/act-pl79-404.pdf Administrative Procedure Act] § 10; significantly amended by [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/94/574.pdf Pub. L. No. 94-574], 90 Stat. 2721; 28 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1331&num=0&edition=prelim 1331], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1631&num=0&edition=prelim 1631], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2112&num=0&edition=prelim 2112], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title28/part6/chapter158&edition=prelim 2341–2351] (2012).
+
5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim 701-706] (2012), originally enacted as [https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/01/act-pl79-404.pdf Administrative Procedure Act] § 10; significantly amended by [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/94/574.pdf Pub. L. No. 94-574], 90 Stat. 2721, Oct. 21, 1976; 28 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1331&num=0&edition=prelim 1331], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1631&num=0&edition=prelim 1631], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2112&num=0&edition=prelim 2112], [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title28/part6/chapter158&edition=prelim 2341–2351] (2012).
  
 
==Overview==
 
==Overview==
 
===APA Provisions===
 
===APA Provisions===
The principal statutory authorities governing judicial review of agency action are 5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim 701–706], which codify section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act. Sections 701–706 constitute a general restatement of the principles of judicial review embodied in many statutes and judicial decisions; however, they leave the mechanics regarding judicial review to be governed by other statutes or court rules.  For a thorough discussion of cases concerning both availability and scope of judicial review, see Michael Herz, Richard Murphy, and Kathryn Watts, eds., ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' 1-257 (Am. Bar. Ass’n, 2d ed. 2015). For a summary of the law, see Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, American Bar Association, ''A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law'' 31–66 (2d ed. 2013).
+
The principal statutory authorities governing judicial review of agency action are 5 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim 701–706], which codify section 10 of the [[Administrative Procedure Act]] (APA). Sections 701–706 constitute a general restatement of the principles of judicial review embodied in many statutes and judicial decisions; however, they leave the mechanics regarding judicial review to be governed by other statutes or court rules.  For a thorough discussion of cases concerning both availability and scope of judicial review, see Michael Herz, Richard Murphy, and Kathryn Watts, eds., ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' 1-257 (ABA, 2d ed. 2015). For a summary of the law, see ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, ''A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law'' 31–66 (2d ed. 2013).
  
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section701&num=0&edition=prelim Section 701] embodies the basic presumption that judicial review is available as long as no statute precludes such relief or the action is not one committed by law to agency discretion. ''Abbott Labs. v. Gardner'', 387 U.S. 136, 140 (1967); ''Citizens to Pres. Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe'', 401 U.S. 402, 410 (1971); ''Heckler v. Chaney'', 470 U.S. 821, 826 (1985). Preliminary or interlocutory actions are ordinarily reviewable only on review of the final agency action. ''See, e.g., Ass’n of Nat’l Advertisers, Inc. v. Fed. Trade Comm'n'', 565 F.2d 237 (2d Cir. 1977). In those situations “[w]here a statute commits review of agency action to the Court of Appeals, any suit seeking relief that might affect the Circuit Court’s future jurisdiction is subject to exclusive review in the Court of Appeals.” ''See'' ''Telecomms. Research & Action Ctr. v. Fed. Commc'ns Comm'n (TRAC)'', 750 F.2d 70, 78–79 (D.C. Cir. 1984).
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section701&num=0&edition=prelim Section 701] embodies the basic presumption that judicial review is available as long as no statute precludes such relief or the action is not one committed by law to agency discretion. ''See, e.g.,'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep387/usrep387136/usrep387136.pdf Abbott Labs. v. Gardner], 387 U.S. 136, 140 (1967); [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep401/usrep401402/usrep401402.pdf Citizens to Pres. Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe], 401 U.S. 402, 410 (1971); [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep470/usrep470821/usrep470821.pdf Heckler v. Chaney], 470 U.S. 821, 826 (1985). Preliminary or interlocutory actions are ordinarily reviewable only on review of the final agency action. ''See, e.g., Ass’n of Nat’l Advertisers, Inc. v. FTC'', 565 F.2d 237 (2d Cir. 1977). In those situations “[w]here a statute commits review of agency action to the Court of Appeals, any suit seeking relief that might affect the Circuit Court’s future jurisdiction is subject to exclusive review in the Court of Appeals.” ''See'' ''Telecomms. Research & Action Ctr. v. FCC'', 750 F.2d 70, 78–79 (D.C. Cir. 1984).
  
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim Section 702] is designed to govern the issue of who may challenge agency action. It sets forth the general principle that a person suffering a legal wrong or adversely affected or aggrieved by agency action is entitled to judicial review of that action. The phrase “legal wrong” merely connotes those wrongs that statutes or court decisions identify as constituting grounds for judicial review. The determination of who is “adversely affected or aggrieved” reflects judicial evolution of the law of standing; the courts make their determination based on constitutional and statutory requirements.  
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim Section 702] governs the issue of who may challenge agency action. It sets forth the general principle that a person suffering a legal wrong or adversely affected or aggrieved by agency action is entitled to judicial review of that action. The phrase “legal wrong” connotes those wrongs that statutes or court decisions identify as constituting grounds for judicial review. The determination of who is “adversely affected or aggrieved” reflects judicial evolution of the law of standing; the courts make their determination based on constitutional and statutory requirements.  
  
 
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section703&num=0&edition=prelim Section 703] deals with the form and venue of the judicial review proceeding. Briefly, there are three types of review proceedings:
 
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section703&num=0&edition=prelim Section 703] deals with the form and venue of the judicial review proceeding. Briefly, there are three types of review proceedings:
Line 16: Line 16:
 
*A civil or criminal enforcement proceeding instituted by the government or possibly by a private party that involves the validity of agency action.
 
*A civil or criminal enforcement proceeding instituted by the government or possibly by a private party that involves the validity of agency action.
  
Where a statutory proceeding is provided, such review is frequently, though not always, in the courts of appeals. Nonstatutory review proceedings and enforcement proceedings are almost invariably brought in the U.S. district courts. Where there is an adequate statutory review provided, a party may not seek nonstatutory review. However, review is available in an enforcement proceeding except where a prior opportunity for judicial review was adequate and expressly or impliedly exclusive.  
+
Where a statutory proceeding is provided, such review is undertaken frequently, though not always, in the courts of appeals. Nonstatutory review proceedings and enforcement proceedings are almost invariably brought in the U.S. district courts. Where there is an adequate statutory review provided, a party may not seek nonstatutory review. However, review is available in an enforcement proceeding except where a prior opportunity for judicial review was adequate and expressly or impliedly exclusive.  
  
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section704&num=0&edition=prelim Section 704] provides that “agency action made reviewable by statute and final agency action for which there is no other adequate remedy in a court are subject to judicial review.” The Supreme Court’s summary of the law of finality in ''Bennett v. Spear'', 520 U.S. 154, 177–78 (1997) is now the widely cited test:<blockquote>As a general matter, two conditions must be satisfied for agency action to be “final”: First, the action must mark the “consummation” of the agency’s decisionmaking process—it must not be of a merely tentative or interlocutory nature. And second, the action must be one by which “rights or obligations have been determined,” or from which “legal consequences will flow.”</blockquote>For suits brought under the APA, the exhaustion-of-administrative-remedies requirement is largely subsumed within the finality requirement of § 704. Where agency action is final for purposes of § 704, nonstatutory exhaustion requirements do not preclude review. Section 704 makes clear that unless expressly required by statute, a party seeking review of otherwise final agency action pursuant to the APA need not pursue (1) any process for agency reconsideration of its decision or (2) any intra-agency appeals (except where the agency has, by rule, required exhaustion of the appeal and provided that the agency action is inoperative during the time of the appeal). ''See Darby v. Cisneros'', 509 U.S. 137 (1993).
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section704&num=0&edition=prelim Section 704] provides that “agency action made reviewable by statute and final agency action for which there is no other adequate remedy in a court are subject to judicial review.” The Supreme Court’s summary of the law of finality in [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep520/usrep520154/usrep520154.pdf Bennett v. Spear], 520 U.S. 154, 177–78 (1997) is now the widely cited test:<blockquote>As a general matter, two conditions must be satisfied for agency action to be “final”: First, the action must mark the “consummation” of the agency’s decisionmaking process—it must not be of a merely tentative or interlocutory nature. And second, the action must be one by which “rights or obligations have been determined,” or from which “legal consequences will flow.”</blockquote>For suits brought under the APA, the exhaustion-of-administrative-remedies requirement is largely subsumed within the finality requirement of § 704. Where agency action is final for purposes of § 704, nonstatutory exhaustion requirements do not preclude review. Section 704 makes clear that unless expressly required by statute, a party seeking review of otherwise final agency action pursuant to the APA need not pursue (1) any process for agency reconsideration of its decision or (2) any intra-agency appeals (except where the agency has, by rule, required exhaustion of the appeal and provided that the agency action is inoperative during the time of the appeal). ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep509/usrep509137/usrep509137.pdf Darby v. Cisneros], 509 U.S. 137 (1993).
  
 
Agency action under the APA “includes the whole or a part of any agency rule, order, license, sanction, relief, or the equivalent or denial thereof, or failure to act.” 5 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section551&num=0&edition=prelim 551(13)] (2012).
 
Agency action under the APA “includes the whole or a part of any agency rule, order, license, sanction, relief, or the equivalent or denial thereof, or failure to act.” 5 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section551&num=0&edition=prelim 551(13)] (2012).
  
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section705&num=0&edition=prelim Section 705] authorizes a reviewing court to postpone the effectiveness of agency action or preserve the status or rights affected by an agency’s order pending completion of judicial review proceedings. The standards for deciding requests for stays of agency action are set out in ''Va. Petroleum Jobbers Ass'n v. Fed. Power Comm'n'', 259 F.2d 921 (D.C. Cir. 1958), as elaborated by the court’s decisions in ''Wash. Metro. Area Transit Comm'n v. Holiday Tours, Inc.'', 559 F.2d 841 (D.C. Cir. 1977), ''Wis. Gas Co. v. FERC'', 758 F.2d 669 (D.C. Cir. 1985), and ''Cuomo v. NRC'', 772 F.2d 972 (D.C. Cir. 1985). ''[https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/08pdf/07-1239.pdf Winter v. Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc.]'', 555 U.S. 7 (2008), may have rendered the prevailing “sliding-scale” test into something more akin to an independent, conjunctive factor test. At the very least, ''Winter'' stands for the proposition that a plaintiff cannot readily compensate for a deficient showing of irreparable injury with a strong showing of likelihood of success on the merits. ''See [https://ecf.dcd.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/show_public_doc?2013cv2046-43 Guttenberg v. Emery]'', 26 F. Supp. 3d 88, 93 (D.D.C. 2014) (citing, among other cases, ''[https://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/opinions.nsf/FFE0A48DE60BF3B985257C7C0053997D/$file/13-5223-1479439.pdf Aamer v. Obama]'', 742 F.3d 1023 (D.C. Cir. 2014)).
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section705&num=0&edition=prelim Section 705] authorizes a reviewing court to postpone the effectiveness of agency action or preserve the status or rights affected by an agency’s order pending completion of judicial review proceedings. The standards for deciding requests for stays of agency action are set out in ''Virginia Petroleum Jobbers Association v. Federal Power Commission'', 259 F.2d 921 (D.C. Cir. 1958), as elaborated by the court’s decisions in ''Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Commission v. Holiday Tours, Inc.'', 559 F.2d 841 (D.C. Cir. 1977), ''Wisconsin Gas Co. v. FERC'', 758 F.2d 669 (D.C. Cir. 1985), and ''Cuomo v. NRC'', 772 F.2d 972 (D.C. Cir. 1985). [https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/08pdf/07-1239.pdf Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.], 555 U.S. 7 (2008), may have rendered the prevailing “sliding-scale” test into something more akin to an independent, conjunctive factor test. At the very least, ''Winter'' stands for the proposition that a plaintiff cannot readily compensate for a deficient showing of irreparable injury with a strong showing of likelihood of success on the merits. ''See [https://ecf.dcd.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/show_public_doc?2013cv2046-43 Guttenberg v. Emery]'', 26 F. Supp. 3d 88, 93 (D.D.C. 2014) (citing, among other cases, ''[https://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/opinions.nsf/FFE0A48DE60BF3B985257C7C0053997D/$file/13-5223-1479439.pdf Aamer v. Obama]'', 742 F.3d 1023 (D.C. Cir. 2014)).
  
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section706&num=0&edition=prelim Section 706] sets forth the scope of review of agency actions. The case law on the scope of review is rich and varied and cannot easily be summed up. In general, the scope of review depends on the nature of the agency determination under challenge. Agency conclusions on questions of law are reviewed de novo. When a court reviews an agency’s construction of the statute it administers, the court is required to uphold Congress’s intent where Congress has directly spoken to the precise statutory question at issue. If the statute is silent or ambiguous with respect to the specific issue, however, the agency’s interpretation of the statute must be upheld if the agency’s construction of the statute is “permissible.” ''See Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc.'', 467 U.S. 837 (1984). But whether the Chevron test applies at all depends on a number of factors. The Supreme Court has said that Chevron applies “when it appears that Congress delegated authority to the agency generally to make rules carrying the force of law, and that the agency interpretation claiming deference was promulgated in the exercise of that authority.” ''United States v. Mead Corp.'', 533 U.S. 218, 227 (2001). This test is unlikely to be met when the agency’s statutory interpretation is made in an informal adjudication or in a policy statement or interpretive rule that was not subject to notice and comment. ''See Christensen v. Harris Cty.'', 529 U.S. 576 (2000). In these circumstances, however, it is still proper to give some lesser deference to the agency interpretation. Nevertheless, the Supreme Court has said some issues are of such importance that it would be improper to assume Congress intended to delegate the decision to the agency, thereby requiring the court to determine the statutory meaning on its own without any deference to the agency. ''See, e.g.'', ''[https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/14pdf/14-114_qol1.pdf King v. Burwell]'', 135 S. Ct. 2480, 2488–89 (2015).
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section706&num=0&edition=prelim Section 706] sets forth the scope of review of agency actions. The case law on the scope of review is rich and varied and cannot easily be summed up. In general, the scope of review depends on the nature of the agency determination under challenge. Agency conclusions on questions of law are reviewed de novo. When a court reviews an agency’s construction of the statute it administers, the court is required to uphold Congress’s intent where Congress has directly spoken to the precise statutory question at issue. If the statute is silent or ambiguous with respect to the specific issue, however, the agency’s interpretation of the statute must be upheld if the agency’s construction of the statute is “permissible.” ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep467/usrep467837/usrep467837.pdf Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc.], 467 U.S. 837 (1984). Whether the ''Chevron'' test applies at all depends on a number of factors. The Supreme Court has said that ''Chevron'' applies “when it appears that Congress delegated authority to the agency generally to make rules carrying the force of law, and that the agency interpretation claiming deference was promulgated in the exercise of that authority.” [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep533/usrep533218/usrep533218.pdf United States v. Mead Corp.], 533 U.S. 218, 227 (2001). This test is unlikely to be met when the agency’s statutory interpretation is made in an informal adjudication or in a policy statement or interpretive rule that was not subject to notice and comment. ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep529/usrep529576/usrep529576.pdf Christensen v. Harris Cty.], 529 U.S. 576 (2000). In these circumstances, however, it is still proper to give some lesser deference to the agency interpretation. Nevertheless, the Supreme Court has said some issues are of such importance that it would be improper to assume Congress intended to delegate the decision to the agency, thereby requiring the court to determine the statutory meaning on its own without any deference to the agency. ''See, e.g.'', [https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/14pdf/14-114_qol1.pdf King v. Burwell], 135 S. Ct. 2480, 2488–89 (2015).
  
Agency exercises of judgment or discretion are reviewed under the “arbitrary, capricious, abuse of discretion” standard. Under this standard, an agency determination will be upheld if it is rational, based on consideration of the relevant factors, and within the scope of the authority delegated to the agency by statute. The agency must examine the relevant data and articulate a satisfactory explanation for its action, including a rational connection between the facts found and the choices made. A court is not to substitute its judgment for that of the agency. ''See Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Ass’n v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co.'', 463 U.S. 29, 42–43 (1983). In applying the arbitrary-and-capricious test, the courts have reversed agency actions on the following bases: (1) reliance on impermissible factors, (2) no reasonable relationship to statutory purposes or requirements, (3) inadequate factual premises, (4) unsupported by any reasoning or based on seriously flawed reasoning, (5) failure to consider key aspects of the issue presented, (6) unexplained inconsistency with prior actions, (7) failure to consider alternative solutions, (8) failure to respond to relevant arguments or comments or (9) disproportionate sanctions. ''See'' ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' at 181–95.
+
Agency exercises of judgment or discretion are reviewed under the “arbitrary, capricious, abuse of discretion” standard. Under this standard, an agency determination will be upheld if it is rational, based on consideration of the relevant factors, and within the scope of the authority delegated to the agency by statute. The agency must examine the relevant data and articulate a satisfactory explanation for its action, including a rational connection between the facts found and the choices made. A court is not to substitute its judgment for that of the agency. ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep463/usrep463029/usrep463029.pdf Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Ass’n v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co.], 463 U.S. 29, 42–43 (1983). In applying the arbitrary-and-capricious test, the courts have reversed agency actions on the following bases:  
 +
 
 +
#reliance on impermissible factors,
 +
#no reasonable relationship to statutory purposes or requirements,
 +
#inadequate factual premises,
 +
#unsupported by any reasoning or based on seriously flawed reasoning,
 +
#failure to consider key aspects of the issue presented,
 +
#unexplained inconsistency with prior actions,
 +
#failure to consider alternative solutions,
 +
#failure to respond to relevant arguments or comments, or
 +
#disproportionate sanctions.
 +
 
 +
''See A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' at 181–95.
 +
 
 +
Agency determinations of fact are reviewed under the “substantial evidence” test when the determination is reviewed on the record of an agency hearing required by statute. ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep383/usrep383607/usrep383607.pdf Consolo v. Fed. Mar. Comm’n], 383 U.S. 607, 618–21 (1966) (citing [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep340/usrep340474/usrep340474.pdf Universal Camera Corp. v. NLRB], 340 U.S. 474 (1951)). Otherwise, factual determinations are also subject to the arbitrary or capricious standard, except in unusual cases where the facts may be subject to trial de novo by the reviewing court. However, the courts themselves have difficulty in applying the fine distinction between the arbitrary or capricious and the substantial evidence tests. The tests converge where an agency’s determination is based on a mix of factual and judgmental conclusions, ''see, e.g.'', ''Amoco Oil Co. v. EPA'', 501 F.2d 722, 739–41 (D.C. Cir. 1974), and may be identical where an agency’s factual support is concerned. ''See Ass’n of Data Processing Serv. Orgs., Inc. v. Bd. of Governors of the Fed. Reserve Sys.'', 745 F.2d 677 (D.C. Cir. 1984)).
  
Agency determinations of fact are reviewed under the “substantial evidence” test when the determination is reviewed on the record of an agency hearing required by statute. ''See Consolo v. Fed. Mar. Comm'n'', 383 U.S. 607, 618–21 (1966) (citing ''Universal Camera Corp. v. NLRB'', 340 U.S. 474 (1951)). Otherwise, factual determinations are also subject to the arbitrary or capricious standard, except for the unusual situation in which the facts are subject to trial de novo by the reviewing court. However, the courts themselves have difficulty in applying the fine distinction between the arbitrary or capricious and the substantial evidence tests. The tests converge where an agency’s determination is based on a mix of factual and judgmental conclusions (''see, e.g.'', ''Amoco Oil Co. v. Envtl. Prot. Agency'', 501 F.2d 722, 739–41 (D.C. Cir. 1974)) and may be identical where an agency’s factual support is concerned. ''See Ass’n of Data Processing Service Orgs., Inc. v. Bd. of Governors of the Fed. Reserve Sys.'', 745 F.2d 677 (D.C. Cir. 1984)).
 
 
Section 706 contains a rule of harmless error. A court will not overturn an agency’s decision even if the agency committed some error unless the error was genuinely harmful or prejudicial. ''See Dolcin Corp. v. FTC'', 219 F.2d 742 (D.C. Cir. 1954), ''cert. denied'', 348 U.S. 981 (1955).
 
Section 706 contains a rule of harmless error. A court will not overturn an agency’s decision even if the agency committed some error unless the error was genuinely harmful or prejudicial. ''See Dolcin Corp. v. FTC'', 219 F.2d 742 (D.C. Cir. 1954), ''cert. denied'', 348 U.S. 981 (1955).
  
 
===Illustrative Statutory Provision===
 
===Illustrative Statutory Provision===
The Administrative Orders Review Act (28 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title28/part6/chapter158&edition=prelim 2341–2351] (2012)) is a special statutory provision governing review of the actions of several different agencies. It provides for review in the courts of appeals for final orders of the Federal Communications Commission, Federal Maritime Commission, Maritime Administration, and Surface Transportation Board, and certain final orders of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Energy, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation, and it specifies the procedure for instituting such review proceedings. Venue of the proceedings is in the judicial circuit where the petitioner resides or has its principal office or in the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2343&num=0&edition=prelim 2343]).
+
The Administrative Orders Review Act (28 U.S.C. §§ [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title28/part6/chapter158&edition=prelim 2341–2351] (2012)) is a special statutory provision governing review of the actions of several different agencies. It provides for review in the courts of appeals for final orders of the Federal Communications Commission, Federal Maritime Commission, Maritime Administration, and Surface Transportation Board, and certain final orders of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Energy, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. It also specifies the procedure for instituting such review proceedings. Venue of the proceedings is in the judicial circuit where the petitioner resides or has its principal office or in the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2343&num=0&edition=prelim 2343]).
  
The “orders” that may be reviewed under the Administrative Orders Review Act include not only final orders in adjudicative proceedings, but also orders promulgating agency rules of general applicability. ''See Gage v. U.S. Atomic Energy Comm’n'', 479 F.2d 1214, 1218–19 (D.C. Cir. 1973); ''United States v. Storer Broad. Co.'', 351 U.S. 192 (1956). However, because under 28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2344&num=0&edition=prelim 2344] a review proceeding may be initiated by “any party aggrieved by the final order,” some courts have held that one who did not participate in the administrative proceeding resulting in the order may not seek review under the Administrative Orders Review Act. ''Gage v. U.S. Atomic Energy Comm’n'', 479 F.2d at 1217–18.
+
The “orders” that may be reviewed under the Administrative Orders Review Act include final orders in adjudicative proceedings and orders promulgating agency rules of general applicability. ''See Gage v. U.S. Atomic Energy Comm’n'', 479 F.2d 1214, 1218–19 (D.C. Cir. 1973); [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep351/usrep351192/usrep351192.pdf United States v. Storer Broad. Co.], 351 U.S. 192 (1956). However, because under 28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2344&num=0&edition=prelim 2344] a review proceeding may be initiated by “any party aggrieved by the final order,” some courts have held that a party who did not participate in the administrative proceeding resulting in the order may not seek review under the Administrative Orders Review Act. ''Gage'', 479 F.2d at 1217–18.
  
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2344&num=0&edition=prelim Section 2344] provides that review must be sought within 60 days of the entry of the agency order about which a person complains. Failure to seek judicial review within 60 days renders a request for review untimely. ''See B.J. McAdams, Inc. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n'', 551 F.2d 1112 (8th Cir. 1977). This requirement may create problems with respect to persons seeking relief from a rule some time after its issuance. Where a dispute over a rule arises after its issuance, some courts will deem the 60-day period to run from the agency’s denial of the party’s request for amendment or waiver of the rule, rather than from the issuance date. ''See Pub. Citizen v. NRC'', 901 F.2d 147, 152–53 & n.1 (D.C. Cir. 1990).
+
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2344&num=0&edition=prelim Section 2344] provides that review must be sought within 60 days of the entry of the agency order about which a person complains. Failure to seek judicial review within 60 days renders a request for review untimely. ''See B.J. McAdams, Inc. v. Interstate Commerce Comm’n'', 551 F.2d 1112 (8th Cir. 1977). This requirement can create problems with respect to persons seeking relief from a rule some time after its issuance. Where a dispute over a rule arises after its issuance, some courts will deem the 60-day period to run from the agency’s denial of the party’s request for amendment or waiver of the rule, rather than from the issuance date. ''See Pub. Citizen v. NRC'', 901 F.2d 147, 152–53 & n.1 (D.C. Cir. 1990).
  
 
===Sovereign Immunity===
 
===Sovereign Immunity===
For many years, proceedings for nonstatutory review were subject to possible dismissal on the ground that the government had not consented to be sued. The case law on the availability of the sovereign immunity defense was in hopeless disarray, but a careful pleader could usually bring his case within one of the recognized exceptions to the doctrine. In 1976, in response to recommendations from ACUS and the American Bar Association, Congress enacted [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/94/574.pdf Pub. L. No. 94-574], which amended 5 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim 702] to abolish the defense of sovereign immunity in any action in a court of the United States seeking relief other than money damages, and based on a claim that an agency or officer acted or failed to act in an official capacity or under color of legal authority. It is important to emphasize that the purpose of Pub. L. No. 94-574 was to abolish the technical defense of sovereign immunity in proceedings for nonstatutory review (''Food Town Stores, Inc. v. EEOC'', 708 F.2d 920, 922 (4th Cir. 1983), ''cert. denied'', 465 U.S. 1005 (1984)), and not to eliminate other, more substantive limitations on judicial review, such as the plaintiff’s lack of standing or failure to exhaust administrative remedies, or that the action in question is not ripe for review. Pub. L. No. 94-574 also eliminated several other technical obstacles to suits for judicial review.
+
For many years, proceedings for nonstatutory review were subject to possible dismissal on the ground that the government had not consented to be sued. The case law on the availability of the sovereign immunity defense was inconclusive, but a careful pleader could usually bring his case within one of the recognized exceptions to the doctrine. In 1976, in response to recommendations from ACUS and the American Bar Association, Congress enacted [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/94/574.pdf Pub. L. No. 94-574], which amended 5 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim 702] to abolish the defense of sovereign immunity in any action in a court of the United States seeking relief other than money damages, and based on a claim that an agency or officer acted or failed to act in an official capacity or under color of legal authority. The purpose of Pub. L. No. 94-574 was to abolish the technical defense of sovereign immunity in proceedings for nonstatutory review, ''Food Town Stores, Inc. v. EEOC'', 708 F.2d 920, 922 (4th Cir. 1983), ''cert. denied'', 465 U.S. 1005 (1984)), and not to eliminate other, more substantive limitations on judicial review, such as the plaintiff’s lack of standing or failure to exhaust administrative remedies, or lack of ripeness for review of the action in question. Pub. L. No. 94-574 also eliminated several other technical obstacles to suits for judicial review.
 
   
 
   
 
===Jurisdiction===
 
===Jurisdiction===
Where the relevant statute expressly provides for judicial review in a particular court or courts, the statute itself operates as a grant of subject matter jurisdiction to the courts specified. In 1977, the Supreme Court, resolving a longstanding conflict of views, held that the Administrative Procedure Act, section 702, was not itself a grant to the federal district courts of jurisdiction over review proceedings. ''[http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep430/usrep430099/usrep430099.pdf Califano v. Sanders]'', 430 U.S. 99 (1977). Consequently, the jurisdictional basis for proceedings for review other than those expressly provided for by statute must be found elsewhere, such as chapter [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title28/part4/chapter85&edition=prelim 85] of title 28, U.S.C., which describes the jurisdiction of United States district courts. But this is not a problem, because Section [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1331&num=0&edition=prelim 1331] of title 28, which grants the district courts original jurisdiction over all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States, provides an adequate basis for substantially any review proceeding challenging agency action. Prior to 1976, section 1331 could be invoked only when the amount in controversy was at least $10,000. However, Pub. L. No. 94-574, the statute that abolished the sovereign immunity defense, also eliminated the jurisdictional amount in actions against the United States or its officers; in 1980, the jurisdictional amount was deleted in all cases under section 1331.
+
Where the relevant statute expressly provides for judicial review in a particular court or courts, the statute itself operates as a grant of subject matter jurisdiction to the specified courts. In 1977, the Supreme Court held that the APA (5 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim § 702]) was not itself a grant to the federal district courts of jurisdiction over review proceedings, resolving a longstanding conflict of views. [http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep430/usrep430099/usrep430099.pdf Califano v. Sanders], 430 U.S. 99 (1977). Consequently, the jurisdictional basis for proceedings for review other than those expressly provided for by statute must be found elsewhere, such as [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title28/part4/chapter85&edition=prelim chapter 85] of title 28, U.S.C., which describes the jurisdiction of United States district courts. However, this is generally not an issue, because [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1331&num=0&edition=prelim § 1331] of title 28, which grants the district courts original jurisdiction over all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States, provides an adequate basis for substantially any review proceeding challenging agency action. Prior to 1976, § 1331 could be invoked only when the amount in controversy was at least $10,000. However, Pub. L. No. 94-574, the statute that abolished the sovereign immunity defense, also eliminated the jurisdictional amount in actions against the United States or its officers; in 1980, the jurisdictional amount was deleted in all cases under § 1331.
  
In the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, Congress authorized any federal court without jurisdiction over a civil action that is filed with it (including a petition for review of agency action) to transfer the action to a court where such cases could have been brought in the first instance, if it is in the interest of justice to do so. 28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1631&num=0&edition=prelim 1631] (2012). ''See generally Air Line Pilots Ass’n, Int’l v. Civil Aeronautics Bd.'', 750 F.2d 81, 84–85 (D.C. Cir. 1984).
+
In the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982 ([https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-96/pdf/STATUTE-96-Pg25.pdf Pub. L. No. 97-164]) Congress authorized any federal court without jurisdiction over a civil action that is filed with it (including a petition for review of agency action) to transfer the action to a court where such cases could have been brought in the first instance, if it is in the interest of justice to do so. 28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1631&num=0&edition=prelim 1631] (2012). ''See generally Air Line Pilots Ass’n, Int’l v. Civil Aeronautics Bd.'', 750 F.2d 81, 84–85 (D.C. Cir. 1984).
  
 
===Forum Selection===
 
===Forum Selection===
28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2112&num=0&edition=prelim 2112] governs the procedures for filing the record on review by the agency in the courts of appeals and the resolution of conflicts where proceedings have been instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same agency order. Section 2112(a) provides that the agency shall file the record (or, if local court rules permit, a certified list of the materials comprising the record) in a designated court of appeals. If only a single petition for review is filed within 10 days after issuance of an agency’s order, the agency shall file the record in that court of appeals notwithstanding the subsequent institution of any other court proceedings for review of the same order. If two or more petitions for review of the same agency order are filed in different courts of appeals within ten days after issuance of the agency’s order, the agency shall notify the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation, which shall by means of random selection designate one court of appeals from among the courts in which petitions were filed to hear the case; the panel shall consolidate all petitions for review in that court and the agency shall thereafter file the record in the designated court. In all other circumstances, the agency shall file the record in the court of appeals in which proceedings with respect to the order were first instituted. The random selection provisions in section 2112(a)(3) were established by [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/100/236.pdf Pub. L. No. 100-236], 101 Stat. 1731 (1988) to implement ACUS’s recommendation to eliminate so-called “races to the courthouse.” Admin. Conf. of the U.S., Recommendation 80-5, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/80-5.pdf Eliminating or Simplifying the “Race to the Courthouse” in Appeals from Agency Action], 45 Fed. Reg. 84,954 (Dec. 24, 1980).  
+
28 U.S.C. § [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section2112&num=0&edition=prelim 2112] governs the procedures for filing the record on review by the agency in the courts of appeals and the resolution of conflicts where proceedings have been instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same agency order. Section 2112(a) provides that the agency shall file the record (or, if local court rules permit, a certified list of the materials comprising the record) in a designated court of appeals. If only a single petition for review is filed within 10 days after issuance of an agency’s order, the agency shall file the record in that court of appeals notwithstanding the subsequent institution of any other court proceedings for review of the same order. If two or more petitions for review of the same agency order are filed in different courts of appeals within ten days after issuance of the agency’s order, the agency shall notify the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation, which shall by means of random selection designate one court of appeals from among the courts in which petitions were filed to hear the case; the panel shall consolidate all petitions for review in that court and the agency shall thereafter file the record in the designated court. In all other circumstances, the agency shall file the record in the court of appeals in which proceedings with respect to the order were first instituted. The random selection provisions in section 2112(a)(3) were established by [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/100/236.pdf Pub. L. No. 100-236] to implement ACUS Recommendation 80-5, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/80-5.pdf Eliminating or Simplifying the “Race to the Courthouse” in Appeals from Agency Action].  
  
 
Section 2112(a)(5) requires all courts in which proceedings are instituted, other than the court in which the record is filed, to transfer those proceedings to the court in which the record is filed. The section nonetheless authorizes the court in which the record is filed to transfer all proceedings to any other court of appeals for the convenience of the parties and in the interest of justice.
 
Section 2112(a)(5) requires all courts in which proceedings are instituted, other than the court in which the record is filed, to transfer those proceedings to the court in which the record is filed. The section nonetheless authorizes the court in which the record is filed to transfer all proceedings to any other court of appeals for the convenience of the parties and in the interest of justice.
Line 55: Line 68:
 
===Legislative History and Congressional Documents===
 
===Legislative History and Congressional Documents===
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
*Report to Accompany H.R. 1162, H. Comm. on the Judiciary, ''H.R. Rep. No. 100-72'' (1987).
+
*H.R. Rep. No. 100-72 (1987).
*Report to Accompany S. 1134, S. Comm. on the Judiciary, ''S. Rep. No. 100-263'' (1987).
+
*S. Rep. No. 100-263 (1987).
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg66612/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg66612.pdf Formal Rulemaking and Judicial Review: Protecting Jobs and the Economy with Greater Regulatory Transparency and Accountability], Subcomm. on Courts, Commercial and Administrative Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. (2011).
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg66612/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg66612.pdf Formal Rulemaking and Judicial Review: Protecting Jobs and the Economy with Greater Regulatory Transparency and Accountability], Hearing Before Subcomm. on Courts, Commercial and Admin. Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. (2011).
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg66156/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg66156.pdf Cost-Justifying Regulations: Protecting Jobs and the Economy by Presidential and Judicial Review of Costs and Benefits], Subcomm. on Courts, Commercial and Admin. Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. (2011).  
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg66156/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg66156.pdf Cost-Justifying Regulations: Protecting Jobs and the Economy by Presidential and Judicial Review of Costs and Benefits], Hearing Before Subcomm. on Courts, Commercial and Admin. Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. (2011).
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-114shrg94906/pdf/CHRG-114shrg94906.pdf Examining the Proper Role of Judicial Review, in the Federal Regulatory Process], Subcomm. on Regulatory Affairs and Fed. Mgmt., of the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. and Gov'tal Affairs, 114th Cong. (2015) ([https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/examining-the-proper-role-of-judicial-review-in-the-federal-regulatory-process video]).
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-114shrg94906/pdf/CHRG-114shrg94906.pdf Examining the Proper Role of Judicial Review, in the Federal Regulatory Process], Hearing Before Subcomm. on Regulatory Affairs and Fed. Mgmt., of the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. and Gov’tal Affairs, 114th Cong. (2015) ([https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/examining-the-proper-role-of-judicial-review-in-the-federal-regulatory-process video]).
*Providing for Consideration of the Bill (H.R. 4768) to Amend Title 5, United States Code, with Respect to the Judicial Review of Agency Interpretations of Statutory and Regulatory Provisions; Providing for Proceedings During the Period from June 23, 2016, Through July 4, 2016; and Providing for Consideration of Motions to Suspend the Rules, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-114hrpt641/pdf/CRPT-114hrpt641.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 114-641], 114th (2016).
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-114hrpt641/pdf/CRPT-114hrpt641.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 114-641] (2016).
*Providing for Consideration of the Bill (H.R. 3438) to Amend Title 5, United States Code, to Postpone the Effective Date of High Impact Rules Pending Judicial Review, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-114hrpt777/pdf/CRPT-114hrpt777.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 114–777] (2016).  
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-114hrpt777/pdf/CRPT-114hrpt777.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 114–777] (2016).
*Providing for Consideration of the Bill (H.R. 5) to Reform the Process by Which Federal Agencies Analyze and Formulate New Regulations and Guidance Documents, to Clarify the Nature of Judicial Review of Agency Interpretations, to Ensure Complete Analysis of Potential Impacts on Small Entities of Rules, and for Other Purposes, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-115hrpt2/pdf/CRPT-115hrpt2.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 115-2] (2017).  
+
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-115hrpt2/pdf/CRPT-115hrpt2.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 115-2] (2017).
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Line 81: Line 94:
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
*Jonathan H. Adler, [https://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4234&context=mlr Restoring Chevron’s Domain], 81 Mo. L. Rev. 983 (2016).
 
*Jonathan H. Adler, [https://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4234&context=mlr Restoring Chevron’s Domain], 81 Mo. L. Rev. 983 (2016).
*Kent Barnett, [https://digitalcommons.law.uga.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1991&context=fac_artchop Codifying Chevmore], 90 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1 (2015).
+
*Kent H. Barnett, [https://digitalcommons.law.uga.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1991&context=fac_artchop Codifying Chevmore], 90 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1 (2015).
*Kent Barnett & Christopher J. Walker, [http://michiganlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/116MichLRev1_BarnettWalker.pdf Chevron in the Circuit Courts], 116 Mich. L. Rev. 1 (2017)
+
*Kent H. Barnett & Christopher J. Walker, [http://michiganlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/116MichLRev1_BarnettWalker.pdf Chevron in the Circuit Courts], 116 Mich. L. Rev. 1 (2017)
 +
*Kent H. Barnett & Christopher J. Walker, [https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4782&context=ndlr Chevron Step Two’s Domain], 93 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1441 (2018).
 
*Nicholas R. Bednar & Kristin E. Hickman, [https://www.gwlr.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/85-Geo.-Wash.-L.-Rev.-1392.pdf Chevron’s Inevitability], 85 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1392 (2017).
 
*Nicholas R. Bednar & Kristin E. Hickman, [https://www.gwlr.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/85-Geo.-Wash.-L.-Rev.-1392.pdf Chevron’s Inevitability], 85 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1392 (2017).
 
*Eric Biber, [https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1606&context=facpubs Two Sides of the Same Coin: Judicial Review of Administrative Agency Action and Inaction], 26 Va. Envtl. L.J. 461 (2008).
 
*Eric Biber, [https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1606&context=facpubs Two Sides of the Same Coin: Judicial Review of Administrative Agency Action and Inaction], 26 Va. Envtl. L.J. 461 (2008).
Line 89: Line 103:
 
*Jared P. Cole, Cong. Research Serv., R44699, [https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44699.pdf An Introduction to Judicial Review of Federal Agency Action] (2016).
 
*Jared P. Cole, Cong. Research Serv., R44699, [https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44699.pdf An Introduction to Judicial Review of Federal Agency Action] (2016).
 
*Frank B. Cross, ''Shattering the Fragile Case for Judicial Review of Rulemaking'', 85 Va. L. Rev. 1243 (1999)
 
*Frank B. Cross, ''Shattering the Fragile Case for Judicial Review of Rulemaking'', 85 Va. L. Rev. 1243 (1999)
*Harry T. Edwards & Linda Elliott, ''Federal Courts Standards of Review: Appellate Court Review of District Court Decisions and Agency Actions'' (Thompson West 2007).
+
*Harry T. Edwards & Linda Elliott, ''Federal Courts Standards of Review: Appellate Court Review of District Court Decisions and Agency Actions'' (Thompson West, 2007).
 
*Patrick M. Garry, [https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1422&context=nlj Judicial Review and the “Hard Look” Doctrine], 7 Nev. L.J. 151 (2006).
 
*Patrick M. Garry, [https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1422&context=nlj Judicial Review and the “Hard Look” Doctrine], 7 Nev. L.J. 151 (2006).
 +
*Jonah B. Gelbach & David Marcus, [https://texaslawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Gelbach.pdf Rethinking Judicial Review of High Volume Agency Adjudication], 96 Tex. L. Rev. 1097 (2018).
 
*Michael P. Healy, [https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1123&context=law_facpub Reconciling Chevron, Mead, and the Review of Agency Discretion: Source of Law and the Standards of Judicial Review], 19 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 1 (2011).
 
*Michael P. Healy, [https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1123&context=law_facpub Reconciling Chevron, Mead, and the Review of Agency Discretion: Source of Law and the Standards of Judicial Review], 19 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 1 (2011).
 
*Daniel J. Hemel & Aaron L. Nielson, [https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2058&context=public_law_and_legal_theory Chevron Step One-and-a-Half], 84 Univ. Chi. L. Rev. 757 (2017).
 
*Daniel J. Hemel & Aaron L. Nielson, [https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2058&context=public_law_and_legal_theory Chevron Step One-and-a-Half], 84 Univ. Chi. L. Rev. 757 (2017).
*Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts, eds., ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' (A.B.A., 2015).
+
*Michael Herz, Richard Murphy & Kathryn Watts, eds., ''A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies'' (ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, 2015).
 
*Michael Herz, [https://cardozo.yu.edu/sites/default/files/Herz%20Chevron.pdf Chevron Is Dead; Long Live Chevron], 115 Colum. L. Rev. 1867 (2015).
 
*Michael Herz, [https://cardozo.yu.edu/sites/default/files/Herz%20Chevron.pdf Chevron Is Dead; Long Live Chevron], 115 Colum. L. Rev. 1867 (2015).
 
*Scott A. Keller, [https://digital.law.washington.edu/dspace-law/bitstream/handle/1773.1/171/Keller_Article_Aug2009.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Depoliticizing Judicial Review of Agency Rulemaking], 84 Wash. L. Rev. 419 (2009).
 
*Scott A. Keller, [https://digital.law.washington.edu/dspace-law/bitstream/handle/1773.1/171/Keller_Article_Aug2009.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Depoliticizing Judicial Review of Agency Rulemaking], 84 Wash. L. Rev. 419 (2009).
Line 104: Line 119:
 
*Sidney A. Shapiro & Richard W. Murphy, [https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4683&context=ndlr Arbitrariness Review Made Reasonable: Structural and Conceptual Reform of “Hard Look”], 92 Notre Dame L. Rev. 331 (2016).
 
*Sidney A. Shapiro & Richard W. Murphy, [https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4683&context=ndlr Arbitrariness Review Made Reasonable: Structural and Conceptual Reform of “Hard Look”], 92 Notre Dame L. Rev. 331 (2016).
 
*Catherine M. Sharkey, [https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5505&context=flr Cutting in on the Chevron Two-Step], 86 Fordham L. Rev. 2359 (2018).
 
*Catherine M. Sharkey, [https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5505&context=flr Cutting in on the Chevron Two-Step], 86 Fordham L. Rev. 2359 (2018).
*Catherine M. Sharkey, [http://www.nyulawreview.org/sites/default/files/pdf/NYULawReview-89-5-1589-Sharkey.pdf State Farm “With Teeth”: Heightened Judicial Review in the Absence of Executive Oversight], 89 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1589 (2014).
+
*Catherine M. Sharkey, [https://www.nyulawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/NYULawReview-89-5-1589-Sharkey.pdf State Farm “With Teeth”: Heightened Judicial Review in the Absence of Executive Oversight], 89 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1589 (2014).
*Cass Sunstein, [http://www.virginialawreview.org/sites/virginialawreview.org/files/187_0.pdf Chevron Step Zero], 92 Va. L. Rev. 187 (2006).
+
*Cass R. Sunstein, [http://www.virginialawreview.org/sites/virginialawreview.org/files/187_0.pdf Chevron Step Zero], 92 Va. L. Rev. 187 (2006).
*Wendy Wagner, [https://wmlawreview.org/sites/default/files/10-Wagner.pdf Revisiting the Impact of Judicial Review on Agency Rulemakings: An Empirical Investigation], 53 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1717 (2012).
+
*Charles W. Tyler & E. Donald Elliott, T[https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/tailoring-the-scope-of-judicial-remedies-in-administrative-law-final-report.pdf ailoring the Scope of Judicial Remedies in Administrative Law] (May 4, 2018) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Wendy Wagner, [https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/73967987.pdf Revisiting the Impact of Judicial Review on Agency Rulemakings: An Empirical Investigation], 53 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1717 (2012).
 
*Patricia M. Wald, [https://digitalcommons.law.utulsa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2075&context=tlr Judicial Review in Midpassage: The Uneasy Partnership between Courts and Agencies Plays On], 32 Tulsa L.J. 221 (1996).
 
*Patricia M. Wald, [https://digitalcommons.law.utulsa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2075&context=tlr Judicial Review in Midpassage: The Uneasy Partnership between Courts and Agencies Plays On], 32 Tulsa L.J. 221 (1996).
 
*Christopher J. Walker, [https://www.law.georgetown.edu/public-policy-journal/wp-content/uploads/sites/23/2018/05/16-1-Attacking-Auer-and-Chevron-Deference.pdf Attacking Auer and Chevron Deference: A Literature Review], 16 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 103 (2018).
 
*Christopher J. Walker, [https://www.law.georgetown.edu/public-policy-journal/wp-content/uploads/sites/23/2018/05/16-1-Attacking-Auer-and-Chevron-Deference.pdf Attacking Auer and Chevron Deference: A Literature Review], 16 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 103 (2018).
Line 114: Line 130:
 
==Statutory Provisions==
 
==Statutory Provisions==
 
Title 5 U.S. Code, [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim Chapter 7—Judicial Review]
 
Title 5 U.S. Code, [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title5/part1/chapter7&edition=prelim Chapter 7—Judicial Review]
 +
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section701&num=0&edition=prelim § 701. Application; definitions]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section701&num=0&edition=prelim § 701. Application; definitions]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim § 702. Right of review]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section702&num=0&edition=prelim § 702. Right of review]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section703&num=0&edition=prelim § 703. Form and venue of proceeding]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section703&num=0&edition=prelim § 703. Form and venue of proceeding]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section704&num=0&edition=prelim § 704. Actions reviewable]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section704&num=0&edition=prelim § 704. Actions reviewable]
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section705&num=0&edition=prelim § 705. Relief pending review]  
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section705&num=0&edition=prelim § 705. Relief pending review]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section706&num=0&edition=prelim § 706. Scope of review]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title5-section706&num=0&edition=prelim § 706. Scope of review]
  
 
Title 28 U.S. Code
 
Title 28 U.S. Code
 +
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1331&num=0&edition=prelim § 1331. Federal question]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1331&num=0&edition=prelim § 1331. Federal question]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1631&num=0&edition=prelim § 1631. Transfer to cure want of jurisdiction]
 
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title28-section1631&num=0&edition=prelim § 1631. Transfer to cure want of jurisdiction]

Latest revision as of 11:12, 1 February 2019

5 U.S.C. §§ 701-706 (2012), originally enacted as Administrative Procedure Act § 10; significantly amended by Pub. L. No. 94-574, 90 Stat. 2721, Oct. 21, 1976; 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331, 1631, 2112, 2341–2351 (2012).

Overview

APA Provisions

The principal statutory authorities governing judicial review of agency action are 5 U.S.C. §§ 701–706, which codify section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). Sections 701–706 constitute a general restatement of the principles of judicial review embodied in many statutes and judicial decisions; however, they leave the mechanics regarding judicial review to be governed by other statutes or court rules. For a thorough discussion of cases concerning both availability and scope of judicial review, see Michael Herz, Richard Murphy, and Kathryn Watts, eds., A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies 1-257 (ABA, 2d ed. 2015). For a summary of the law, see ABA Section of Admin. Law & Regulatory Practice, A Blackletter Statement of Federal Administrative Law 31–66 (2d ed. 2013).

Section 701 embodies the basic presumption that judicial review is available as long as no statute precludes such relief or the action is not one committed by law to agency discretion. See, e.g., Abbott Labs. v. Gardner, 387 U.S. 136, 140 (1967); Citizens to Pres. Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe, 401 U.S. 402, 410 (1971); Heckler v. Chaney, 470 U.S. 821, 826 (1985). Preliminary or interlocutory actions are ordinarily reviewable only on review of the final agency action. See, e.g., Ass’n of Nat’l Advertisers, Inc. v. FTC, 565 F.2d 237 (2d Cir. 1977). In those situations “[w]here a statute commits review of agency action to the Court of Appeals, any suit seeking relief that might affect the Circuit Court’s future jurisdiction is subject to exclusive review in the Court of Appeals.” See Telecomms. Research & Action Ctr. v. FCC, 750 F.2d 70, 78–79 (D.C. Cir. 1984).

Section 702 governs the issue of who may challenge agency action. It sets forth the general principle that a person suffering a legal wrong or adversely affected or aggrieved by agency action is entitled to judicial review of that action. The phrase “legal wrong” connotes those wrongs that statutes or court decisions identify as constituting grounds for judicial review. The determination of who is “adversely affected or aggrieved” reflects judicial evolution of the law of standing; the courts make their determination based on constitutional and statutory requirements.

Section 703 deals with the form and venue of the judicial review proceeding. Briefly, there are three types of review proceedings:

  • “Statutory review”—a review proceeding specifically provided by statute for the agency action in question (e.g., a proceeding to review a rule of the Federal Trade Commission under 15 U.S.C. § 57a(e));
  • “Nonstatutory review”—a review through a suit against the agency or its officers for declaratory or injunctive relief or habeas corpus in a court of competent jurisdiction;
  • A civil or criminal enforcement proceeding instituted by the government or possibly by a private party that involves the validity of agency action.

Where a statutory proceeding is provided, such review is undertaken frequently, though not always, in the courts of appeals. Nonstatutory review proceedings and enforcement proceedings are almost invariably brought in the U.S. district courts. Where there is an adequate statutory review provided, a party may not seek nonstatutory review. However, review is available in an enforcement proceeding except where a prior opportunity for judicial review was adequate and expressly or impliedly exclusive.

Section 704 provides that “agency action made reviewable by statute and final agency action for which there is no other adequate remedy in a court are subject to judicial review.” The Supreme Court’s summary of the law of finality in Bennett v. Spear, 520 U.S. 154, 177–78 (1997) is now the widely cited test:

As a general matter, two conditions must be satisfied for agency action to be “final”: First, the action must mark the “consummation” of the agency’s decisionmaking process—it must not be of a merely tentative or interlocutory nature. And second, the action must be one by which “rights or obligations have been determined,” or from which “legal consequences will flow.”

For suits brought under the APA, the exhaustion-of-administrative-remedies requirement is largely subsumed within the finality requirement of § 704. Where agency action is final for purposes of § 704, nonstatutory exhaustion requirements do not preclude review. Section 704 makes clear that unless expressly required by statute, a party seeking review of otherwise final agency action pursuant to the APA need not pursue (1) any process for agency reconsideration of its decision or (2) any intra-agency appeals (except where the agency has, by rule, required exhaustion of the appeal and provided that the agency action is inoperative during the time of the appeal). See Darby v. Cisneros, 509 U.S. 137 (1993).

Agency action under the APA “includes the whole or a part of any agency rule, order, license, sanction, relief, or the equivalent or denial thereof, or failure to act.” 5 U.S.C. § 551(13) (2012).

Section 705 authorizes a reviewing court to postpone the effectiveness of agency action or preserve the status or rights affected by an agency’s order pending completion of judicial review proceedings. The standards for deciding requests for stays of agency action are set out in Virginia Petroleum Jobbers Association v. Federal Power Commission, 259 F.2d 921 (D.C. Cir. 1958), as elaborated by the court’s decisions in Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Commission v. Holiday Tours, Inc., 559 F.2d 841 (D.C. Cir. 1977), Wisconsin Gas Co. v. FERC, 758 F.2d 669 (D.C. Cir. 1985), and Cuomo v. NRC, 772 F.2d 972 (D.C. Cir. 1985). Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 555 U.S. 7 (2008), may have rendered the prevailing “sliding-scale” test into something more akin to an independent, conjunctive factor test. At the very least, Winter stands for the proposition that a plaintiff cannot readily compensate for a deficient showing of irreparable injury with a strong showing of likelihood of success on the merits. See Guttenberg v. Emery, 26 F. Supp. 3d 88, 93 (D.D.C. 2014) (citing, among other cases, Aamer v. Obama, 742 F.3d 1023 (D.C. Cir. 2014)).

Section 706 sets forth the scope of review of agency actions. The case law on the scope of review is rich and varied and cannot easily be summed up. In general, the scope of review depends on the nature of the agency determination under challenge. Agency conclusions on questions of law are reviewed de novo. When a court reviews an agency’s construction of the statute it administers, the court is required to uphold Congress’s intent where Congress has directly spoken to the precise statutory question at issue. If the statute is silent or ambiguous with respect to the specific issue, however, the agency’s interpretation of the statute must be upheld if the agency’s construction of the statute is “permissible.” See Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984). Whether the Chevron test applies at all depends on a number of factors. The Supreme Court has said that Chevron applies “when it appears that Congress delegated authority to the agency generally to make rules carrying the force of law, and that the agency interpretation claiming deference was promulgated in the exercise of that authority.” United States v. Mead Corp., 533 U.S. 218, 227 (2001). This test is unlikely to be met when the agency’s statutory interpretation is made in an informal adjudication or in a policy statement or interpretive rule that was not subject to notice and comment. See Christensen v. Harris Cty., 529 U.S. 576 (2000). In these circumstances, however, it is still proper to give some lesser deference to the agency interpretation. Nevertheless, the Supreme Court has said some issues are of such importance that it would be improper to assume Congress intended to delegate the decision to the agency, thereby requiring the court to determine the statutory meaning on its own without any deference to the agency. See, e.g., King v. Burwell, 135 S. Ct. 2480, 2488–89 (2015).

Agency exercises of judgment or discretion are reviewed under the “arbitrary, capricious, abuse of discretion” standard. Under this standard, an agency determination will be upheld if it is rational, based on consideration of the relevant factors, and within the scope of the authority delegated to the agency by statute. The agency must examine the relevant data and articulate a satisfactory explanation for its action, including a rational connection between the facts found and the choices made. A court is not to substitute its judgment for that of the agency. See Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Ass’n v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 463 U.S. 29, 42–43 (1983). In applying the arbitrary-and-capricious test, the courts have reversed agency actions on the following bases:

  1. reliance on impermissible factors,
  2. no reasonable relationship to statutory purposes or requirements,
  3. inadequate factual premises,
  4. unsupported by any reasoning or based on seriously flawed reasoning,
  5. failure to consider key aspects of the issue presented,
  6. unexplained inconsistency with prior actions,
  7. failure to consider alternative solutions,
  8. failure to respond to relevant arguments or comments, or
  9. disproportionate sanctions.

See A Guide to Judicial and Political Review of Federal Agencies at 181–95.

Agency determinations of fact are reviewed under the “substantial evidence” test when the determination is reviewed on the record of an agency hearing required by statute. See Consolo v. Fed. Mar. Comm’n, 383 U.S. 607, 618–21 (1966) (citing Universal Camera Corp. v. NLRB, 340 U.S. 474 (1951)). Otherwise, factual determinations are also subject to the arbitrary or capricious standard, except in unusual cases where the facts may be subject to trial de novo by the reviewing court. However, the courts themselves have difficulty in applying the fine distinction between the arbitrary or capricious and the substantial evidence tests. The tests converge where an agency’s determination is based on a mix of factual and judgmental conclusions, see, e.g., Amoco Oil Co. v. EPA, 501 F.2d 722, 739–41 (D.C. Cir. 1974), and may be identical where an agency’s factual support is concerned. See Ass’n of Data Processing Serv. Orgs., Inc. v. Bd. of Governors of the Fed. Reserve Sys., 745 F.2d 677 (D.C. Cir. 1984)).

Section 706 contains a rule of harmless error. A court will not overturn an agency’s decision even if the agency committed some error unless the error was genuinely harmful or prejudicial. See Dolcin Corp. v. FTC, 219 F.2d 742 (D.C. Cir. 1954), cert. denied, 348 U.S. 981 (1955).

Illustrative Statutory Provision

The Administrative Orders Review Act (28 U.S.C. §§ 2341–2351 (2012)) is a special statutory provision governing review of the actions of several different agencies. It provides for review in the courts of appeals for final orders of the Federal Communications Commission, Federal Maritime Commission, Maritime Administration, and Surface Transportation Board, and certain final orders of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Energy, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. It also specifies the procedure for instituting such review proceedings. Venue of the proceedings is in the judicial circuit where the petitioner resides or has its principal office or in the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (28 U.S.C. § 2343).

The “orders” that may be reviewed under the Administrative Orders Review Act include final orders in adjudicative proceedings and orders promulgating agency rules of general applicability. See Gage v. U.S. Atomic Energy Comm’n, 479 F.2d 1214, 1218–19 (D.C. Cir. 1973); United States v. Storer Broad. Co., 351 U.S. 192 (1956). However, because under 28 U.S.C. § 2344 a review proceeding may be initiated by “any party aggrieved by the final order,” some courts have held that a party who did not participate in the administrative proceeding resulting in the order may not seek review under the Administrative Orders Review Act. Gage, 479 F.2d at 1217–18.

Section 2344 provides that review must be sought within 60 days of the entry of the agency order about which a person complains. Failure to seek judicial review within 60 days renders a request for review untimely. See B.J. McAdams, Inc. v. Interstate Commerce Comm’n, 551 F.2d 1112 (8th Cir. 1977). This requirement can create problems with respect to persons seeking relief from a rule some time after its issuance. Where a dispute over a rule arises after its issuance, some courts will deem the 60-day period to run from the agency’s denial of the party’s request for amendment or waiver of the rule, rather than from the issuance date. See Pub. Citizen v. NRC, 901 F.2d 147, 152–53 & n.1 (D.C. Cir. 1990).

Sovereign Immunity

For many years, proceedings for nonstatutory review were subject to possible dismissal on the ground that the government had not consented to be sued. The case law on the availability of the sovereign immunity defense was inconclusive, but a careful pleader could usually bring his case within one of the recognized exceptions to the doctrine. In 1976, in response to recommendations from ACUS and the American Bar Association, Congress enacted Pub. L. No. 94-574, which amended 5 U.S.C. § 702 to abolish the defense of sovereign immunity in any action in a court of the United States seeking relief other than money damages, and based on a claim that an agency or officer acted or failed to act in an official capacity or under color of legal authority. The purpose of Pub. L. No. 94-574 was to abolish the technical defense of sovereign immunity in proceedings for nonstatutory review, Food Town Stores, Inc. v. EEOC, 708 F.2d 920, 922 (4th Cir. 1983), cert. denied, 465 U.S. 1005 (1984)), and not to eliminate other, more substantive limitations on judicial review, such as the plaintiff’s lack of standing or failure to exhaust administrative remedies, or lack of ripeness for review of the action in question. Pub. L. No. 94-574 also eliminated several other technical obstacles to suits for judicial review.

Jurisdiction

Where the relevant statute expressly provides for judicial review in a particular court or courts, the statute itself operates as a grant of subject matter jurisdiction to the specified courts. In 1977, the Supreme Court held that the APA (5 U.S.C. § 702) was not itself a grant to the federal district courts of jurisdiction over review proceedings, resolving a longstanding conflict of views. Califano v. Sanders, 430 U.S. 99 (1977). Consequently, the jurisdictional basis for proceedings for review other than those expressly provided for by statute must be found elsewhere, such as chapter 85 of title 28, U.S.C., which describes the jurisdiction of United States district courts. However, this is generally not an issue, because § 1331 of title 28, which grants the district courts original jurisdiction over all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States, provides an adequate basis for substantially any review proceeding challenging agency action. Prior to 1976, § 1331 could be invoked only when the amount in controversy was at least $10,000. However, Pub. L. No. 94-574, the statute that abolished the sovereign immunity defense, also eliminated the jurisdictional amount in actions against the United States or its officers; in 1980, the jurisdictional amount was deleted in all cases under § 1331.

In the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982 (Pub. L. No. 97-164) Congress authorized any federal court without jurisdiction over a civil action that is filed with it (including a petition for review of agency action) to transfer the action to a court where such cases could have been brought in the first instance, if it is in the interest of justice to do so. 28 U.S.C. § 1631 (2012). See generally Air Line Pilots Ass’n, Int’l v. Civil Aeronautics Bd., 750 F.2d 81, 84–85 (D.C. Cir. 1984).

Forum Selection

28 U.S.C. § 2112 governs the procedures for filing the record on review by the agency in the courts of appeals and the resolution of conflicts where proceedings have been instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same agency order. Section 2112(a) provides that the agency shall file the record (or, if local court rules permit, a certified list of the materials comprising the record) in a designated court of appeals. If only a single petition for review is filed within 10 days after issuance of an agency’s order, the agency shall file the record in that court of appeals notwithstanding the subsequent institution of any other court proceedings for review of the same order. If two or more petitions for review of the same agency order are filed in different courts of appeals within ten days after issuance of the agency’s order, the agency shall notify the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation, which shall by means of random selection designate one court of appeals from among the courts in which petitions were filed to hear the case; the panel shall consolidate all petitions for review in that court and the agency shall thereafter file the record in the designated court. In all other circumstances, the agency shall file the record in the court of appeals in which proceedings with respect to the order were first instituted. The random selection provisions in section 2112(a)(3) were established by Pub. L. No. 100-236 to implement ACUS Recommendation 80-5, Eliminating or Simplifying the “Race to the Courthouse” in Appeals from Agency Action.

Section 2112(a)(5) requires all courts in which proceedings are instituted, other than the court in which the record is filed, to transfer those proceedings to the court in which the record is filed. The section nonetheless authorizes the court in which the record is filed to transfer all proceedings to any other court of appeals for the convenience of the parties and in the interest of justice.

Bibliography

Legislative History and Congressional Documents

ACUS Recommendations

Selected Books and Articles

Statutory Provisions

Title 5 U.S. Code, Chapter 7—Judicial Review

Title 28 U.S. Code