Difference between revisions of "National Environmental Policy Act"

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42 U.S.C. §§ 4321–4347 (2012); enacted Jan. 1, 1970, by Pub. L. No. 91-190; 83 Stat. 852. Amended by Pub. L. No. 94-52, § 2, July 3, 1975, 89 Stat. 258; Pub. L. No. 94-83, Aug. 9, 1975, 89 Stat. 424; Pub. L. No. 112141, Div. A, Title I, Subtitle C, § 1319, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 551.
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[https://www.fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/nepa_statute.pdf 42 U.S.C. §§ 4321–4347] (2012); enacted by [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-83/pdf/STATUTE-83-Pg852.pdf Pub. L. No. 91-190], 83 Stat. 852, Jan. 1, 1970. Amended by [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/94/52.pdf Pub. L. No. 94-52], § 2, 89 Stat. 258, July 3, 1975; by [http://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/94/83.pdf Pub. L. No. 94-83], 89 Stat. 424, Aug. 9, 1975; by [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-112publ141/pdf/PLAW-112publ141.pdf Pub. L. No. 112-141], Div. A, Title I, Subtitle C, § 1319, 126 Stat. 551, July 6, 2012.
  
 
'''Lead Agency:'''
 
'''Lead Agency:'''
  
[https://www.whitehouse.gov/ceq/ Council on Environmental Quality]  
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[https://www.whitehouse.gov/ceq/ Council on Environmental Quality]
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[https://ceq.doe.gov/ NEPA.gov]  
  
 
==Overview==
 
==Overview==
  
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first federal statute to use the “impact statement” approach in federal regulation. Its purpose is to require federal agencies to analyze and consider the environmental impact of their actions in an open and public process. The Act also created the Council on Environmental Quality within the Executive Office of the President.
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The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first federal statute to use the “impact statement” approach in federal regulation. Its purpose is to require federal agencies to analyze and consider the environmental impact of their actions in an open and public process. NEPA also created the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) within the Executive Office of the President.
  
 
===Environmental Impact Statements===  
 
===Environmental Impact Statements===  
  
The core of NEPA is found in section 102(2)(C) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 4332(2)(C)), which creates the environmental impact statement (EIS) requirement. The provision requires that:
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The core of NEPA is found in section 102(2)(C) (codified at 42 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4332&num=0&edition=prelim § 4332(2)(C)]), which creates the environmental impact statement (EIS) requirement. The provision requires that: <blockquote>all agencies of the Federal Government . . . include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official on—(i) the environmental impact of the proposed action, (ii) any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented, (iii) alternatives to the proposed action, (iv) the relationship between local short-term uses of man’s environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and (v) any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented.</blockquote>The provision requires the responsible federal official to consult with and seek comments from other affected agencies. Copies of the statements and relevant comments must be made public and must accompany the proposal through the agency review process.
all agencies of the Federal Government . . . include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official on—
 
(i) the environmental impact of the proposed action,
 
(ii) any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented,
 
(iii) alternatives to the proposed action,
 
(iv) the relationship between local short-term uses of man’s environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and
 
(v) any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented.
 
 
 
The provision goes on to require the responsible federal official to consult with and seek comments from other affected agencies. Copies of the statements and relevant comments must be made public and must accompany the proposal through the agency review process.
 
  
Despite language in NEPA that might be construed otherwise, the Supreme Court has held that NEPA does not impose any substantive requirement on agencies to favor the environment in the agency’s decisionmaking. See Strycker’s Bay Neighborhood Council, Inc. v. Karlen, 444 U.S. 223 (1980). Notwithstanding the lack of substantive requirements, NEPA has been the source of an extremely large number of challenges to agency action, arguing either that the agency failed to prepare an EIS when NEPA required it or that the EIS that the agency prepared was inadequate. Even after 45 years, agencies frequently lose these suits, with the result that the agency action is enjoined until the agency fully complies with NEPA’s procedural requirements.
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Despite language in NEPA that might be construed otherwise, the Supreme Court has held that NEPA does not impose any substantive requirement on agencies to favor the environment in the agency’s decisionmaking. ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep444/usrep444223/usrep444223.pdf Strycker’s Bay Neighborhood Council, Inc. v. Karlen], 444 U.S. 223 (1980). Notwithstanding the lack of substantive requirements, NEPA has been the source of an extremely large number of challenges to agency action, arguing either that the agency failed to prepare an EIS when NEPA required it or that the EIS that the agency prepared was inadequate. Even after 45 years, agencies frequently lose these suits, with the result that the agency action is enjoined until the agency fully complies with NEPA’s procedural requirements.
  
 
===Council on Environmental Quality Role===
 
===Council on Environmental Quality Role===
  
The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), created by title 11 of the Act, is the legal overseer of NEPA and in its early years was active in shaping NEPA law. Until 2000, it prepared extensive annual environmental quality reports pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which was effectively repealed in that year. The Council took the lead in developing appropriate procedures for EIS preparation. In President Nixon’s [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/Req-EO11514envtlquality.pdf Executive Order 11,514] (Mar. 5, 1970), issued shortly after NEPA’s passage, he gave CEQ the authority to issue guidelines to agencies for the preparation of EISs. The CEQ’s original guidelines (36 Fed. Reg. 7724-29 (Apr. 23, 1971)) were nonbinding but were relied upon by most federal agencies when promulgating their own procedures. In 1977 President Carter significantly expanded CEQ’s authority by giving it the power to issue binding regulations in Executive Order 11,991 (May 24, 1977). These regulations, issued on November 28, 1978 (43 Fed. Reg. 55,978–56,007), are codified at 40 C.F.R Parts 1500–1508 and are contained in the Appendix to this chapter. The Supreme Court has since treated these regulations as deserving substantial deference. See Andrus v. Sierra Club, 442 U.S. 347 (1979).
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The CEQ, created by title 11 of NEPA, is the legal overseer of NEPA and was active in shaping NEPA law in its early years. Until 2000, it prepared extensive annual environmental quality reports pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which was effectively repealed in that year. CEQ took the lead in developing appropriate procedures for EIS preparation. In Executive Order 11514, [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/Req-EO11514envtlquality.pdf Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality], issued shortly after NEPA’s passage, President Nixon gave CEQ the authority to issue guidelines to agencies for the preparation of EISs. The CEQ’s original guidelines were nonbinding but were relied upon by most federal agencies when promulgating their own procedures. [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1971-04-23/pdf/FR-1971-04-23.pdf#page=82 Statements on Proposed Federal Actions Affecting the Environment], 36 Fed. Reg. 7724 (Apr. 23, 1971). In 1977, President Carter significantly expanded CEQ’s authority by giving it the power to issue binding regulations in Executive Order 11991, ''Relating to Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality'', (May 24, 1977). These regulations are codified at [https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c38c7cc340821485cfc86a6bed118949&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40chapterV.tpl 40 C.F.R Parts 1500–1508]. ''See'' Implementation of Procedural Provisions, 43 Fed. Reg. 55978 (Nov. 28, 1978). The Supreme Court has since treated these regulations as deserving substantial deference. ''See'' [https://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep442/usrep442347/usrep442347.pdf Andrus v. Sierra Club], 442 U.S. 347 (1979).
 
 
The CEQ regulations cover many of the procedural issues that have emerged in the extensive litigation over the meaning of the Act’s terms. The regulations provide comprehensive guidance on what constitutes a “major federal action” requiring an EIS, the preparation of draft, supplemental and final statements, page limits, recommended format and content (all in 40 C.F.R Part 1502); the comment process (Part 1503); predecision referral of interagency disputes to CEQ (Part 1504); integration with agency decisionmaking (Part 1505); elimination of duplication with state and local requirements and procedures for filing with EPA (Part 1506); and agency compliance (Part 1507).
 
  
In addition to the regulations, CEQ also provided continuing guidance to agencies on implementation of NEPA. For example, in 1981 it published the [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-40Questions.pdf Memorandum to Agencies Containing Answers to 40 Most Asked Questions on NEPA Regulations]. In April 1981 it issued a [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_Scoping_Guidance.pdf Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping] on the subject of “scoping guidance.” In 1983, after a solicitation of comments on the existing regulations and a two-year review process, the Council published a supplemental memorandum giving further guidance to agencies. In 1993, it issued a guidance memorandum on the subject of pollution prevention and NEPA. In 1997, it issued two guidance memoranda, one on cumulative effects analysis under NEPA and the other on considering environmental justice under NEPA. In 2002, CEQ established a NEPA Task Force to undertake a thorough review of NEPA implementation. The Task Force’s report, Modernizing NEPA Implementation, was issued a year later. It contained recommendations designed to modernize the implementation of NEPA and make the NEPA process more effective and efficient.
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The CEQ regulations cover many of the procedural issues that have emerged in the extensive litigation over the meaning of NEPA’s terms. The regulations, all in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, provide comprehensive guidance on what constitutes a “major federal action” requiring an EIS, the preparation of draft, supplemental and final statements, page limits, recommended format and content ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c64f34d636120c3d7582b76398ac7103&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1502&rgn=div5 Part 1502]); the comment process ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c64f34d636120c3d7582b76398ac7103&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1503&rgn=div5 Part 1503]); predecision referral of interagency disputes to CEQ ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c64f34d636120c3d7582b76398ac7103&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1504&rgn=div5 Part 1504]); integration with agency decisionmaking ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c64f34d636120c3d7582b76398ac7103&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1505&rgn=div5 Part 1505]); elimination of duplication with state and local requirements and procedures for filing with EPA ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c64f34d636120c3d7582b76398ac7103&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1506&rgn=div5 Part 1506]); and agency compliance ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c64f34d636120c3d7582b76398ac7103&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1507&rgn=div5 Part 1507]).
  
More recently, CEQ has provided guidance on the use of categorical exclusions (in which agencies may exempt certain actions from NEPA review) and on the use of mitigating measures to avoid a finding of significant impact on the environment. In addition, in 2010 it issued draft guidance on how to consider the effects of climate change with respect to federal actions. On December 18, 2014, a revised guidance document was published for comment. The comment period closed on March 25, 2015. According to the CEQ website:
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In addition to the regulations, CEQ also provided continuing guidance to agencies on implementation of NEPA. For example, in 1981 it published the [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-40Questions.pdf Memorandum to Agencies Containing Answers to 40 Most Asked Questions on NEPA Regulations]. In April 1981, it issued a [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_Scoping_Guidance.pdf Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping] on the subject of “scoping guidance.” In 1983, after a solicitation of comments on the existing regulations and a two-year review process, CEQ published a supplemental memorandum giving further guidance to agencies. In 1993, it issued a guidance memorandum on the subject of pollution prevention and NEPA. In 1997, it issued two guidance memoranda, one on cumulative effects analysis under NEPA and the other on considering environmental justice under NEPA. In 2002, CEQ established a NEPA Task Force to undertake a thorough review of NEPA implementation. The Task Force’s report, [https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-publications/report/finalreport.pdf Modernizing NEPA Implementation], was issued a year later. It contained recommendations designed to modernize the implementation of NEPA and make the NEPA process more effective and efficient.
  
This guidance explains that agencies should consider both the potential effects of a proposed action on climate change, as indicated by its estimated greenhouse gas emissions, and the implications of climate change for the environmental effects of a proposed action. The guidance also emphasizes that agency analyses should be commensurate with projected greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts, and should employ appropriate quantitative or qualitative analytical methods to ensure useful information is available to inform the public and the decision-making process in distinguishing between alternatives and mitigations. It recommends that agencies consider 25,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on an annual basis as a reference point below which a quantitative analysis of greenhouse gas is not recommended unless it is easily accomplished based on available tools and data. Unlike the 2010 draft guidance, the revised draft guidance applies to all proposed Federal agency actions, including land and resource management actions. It reflects CEQ’s consideration of comments received on the 2010 draft guidance in addition to other Federal agency and affected stakeholder input. It does not create new or additional regulatory requirements.  
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More recently, CEQ has provided guidance on the use of categorical exclusions (in which agencies may exempt certain actions from NEPA review) and on the use of mitigating measures to avoid a finding of significant impact on the environment. In addition, in 2010 it issued draft guidance on how to consider the effects of climate change with respect to federal actions. On December 18, 2014, a revised guidance document was published for comment. The comment period closed on March 25, 2015. According to the CEQ website:<blockquote>This guidance explains that agencies should consider both the potential effects of a proposed action on climate change, as indicated by its estimated greenhouse gas emissions, and the implications of climate change for the environmental effects of a proposed action. The guidance also emphasizes that agency analyses should be commensurate with projected greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts, and should employ appropriate quantitative or qualitative analytical methods to ensure useful information is available to inform the public and the decision-making process in distinguishing between alternatives and mitigations. It recommends that agencies consider 25,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on an annual basis as a reference point below which a quantitative analysis of greenhouse gas is not recommended unless it is easily accomplished based on available tools and data. Unlike the 2010 draft guidance, the revised draft guidance applies to all proposed Federal agency actions, including land and resource management actions. It reflects CEQ’s consideration of comments received on the 2010 draft guidance in addition to other Federal agency and affected stakeholder input. It does not create new or additional regulatory requirements.</blockquote>The CEQ also compiles [https://ceq.doe.gov/get-involved/eis_filings.html annual data on the number of environmental impact statements] filed by agencies and the trends in NEPA litigation.
  
The CEQ also compiles annual data on the number of environmental impact statements filed by agencies and the trends in NEPA litigation. This information is available online at https://ceq.doe.gov/current_developments/ eis_filings.html.
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Originally, under 42 U.S.C. [http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4342&num=0&edition=prelim § 4342], CEQ consisted of three members appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, one of whom the President designated as chairman. However, beginning in 1997, Congress inserted a provision in annual appropriations acts stating that, notwithstanding this section of NEPA, the CEQ would consist of one member appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, who should serve as chairman.
 
 
Originally, under 42 U.S.C. § 4342, the CEQ consisted of three members appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, one of whom the President designated as chairman. However, beginning in 1997, Congress inserted a provision in annual appropriations acts stating that, notwithstanding this section of NEPA, the CEQ would consist of one member appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, who should serve as chairman.
 
  
 
==Legislative History==
 
==Legislative History==
  
Senators Jackson and Stevens introduced S. 1075, the original NEPA legislation, on February 18, 1969. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a research program on environmental problems and created the Council on Environmental Quality. A hearing was held April 16, 1969 during which witnesses (primarily Lynton Caldwell, professor of political science at Indiana University) urged the creation of an “action-forcing” mechanism, which later became the environmental impact statement. S. 1075 was reported with amendments and an accompanying report of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs on July 9, 1969. The following day the bill passed the Senate unanimously.
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Senators Henry M. Jackson and Ted Stevens introduced S. 1075, the original NEPA legislation, on February 18, 1969. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a research program on environmental problems and created the Council on Environmental Quality. A hearing was held April 16, 1969 during which witnesses (primarily Lynton Caldwell, professor of political science at Indiana University) urged the creation of an “action-forcing” mechanism, which later became the environmental impact statement. S. 1075 was reported with amendments and an accompanying report of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs on July 9, 1969. The following day the bill passed the Senate unanimously.
  
A House of Representatives’ subcommittee of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries held a series of hearings during May and June 1969 on various related bills. On July 1, 1969, Representative Dingell and others introduced H.R. 12,549, which became the leading House bill. It, however, lacked the impact statement requirement. On July 11, 1969, the full Committee reported H.R. 12,549. A supplemental report was filed on July 19. On September 23, 1969, the House passed the Senate bill, but only after substituting the text of the House bill in place of the Senate’s language. It then requested a conference.
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A House of Representatives’ subcommittee of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries held a series of hearings during May and June 1969 on various related bills. On July 1, 1969, Representative John Dingell and others introduced H.R. 12549, which became the leading House bill. It, however, lacked the impact statement requirement. On July 11, 1969, the full Committee reported H.R. 12549. A supplemental report was filed on July 19. On September 23, 1969, the House passed the Senate bill, but only after substituting the text of the House bill in place of the Senate’s language. It then requested a conference.
  
On October 8, 1969, after listening to Senator Jackson address the differences between the two versions, the Senate voted to insist on its version and appointed conferees. On December 17, 1969, the conference committee reported out a substitute version of S. 1075. This compromise version accepted the Senate’s environmental impact statement requirement, adding the language “to the fullest extent possible.” That same day, the Senate approved the Conference Report. The House followed suit on December 23. The bill became Pub. L. No. 91-190 on January 1, 1970.
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On October 8, 1969, after listening to Senator Jackson address the differences between the two versions, the Senate voted to insist on its version and appointed conferees. On December 17, 1969, the conference committee reported out a substitute version of S. 1075. This compromise version accepted the Senate’s environmental impact statement requirement, adding the language “to the fullest extent possible.” That same day, the Senate approved the Conference Report. The House followed suit on December 23. The bill became [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-83/pdf/STATUTE-83-Pg852.pdf Pub. L. No. 91-190] on January 1, 1970.
  
Section 201 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which required the President to transmit an annual report to Congress relating to the environment, was eliminated by the Federal Reports Elimination and Sunset Act of 1995, Pub. L. No. 104-66, § 3003, 109 Stat. 707 (1995), as amended by Pub. L. No. 106113, Div. B, § 1000(a)(5), 113 Stat. 1536 (1999).
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Section 201 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which required the President to transmit an annual report to Congress relating to the environment, was eliminated by the Federal Reports Elimination and Sunset Act of 1995 ([https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-104publ66/pdf/PLAW-104publ66.pdf Pub. L. No. 104-66]).
  
Section 202 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4342, was effectively amended, although its language was not changed, by a series of annual riders to appropriation acts beginning in 1997 and culminating in a permanent rider to an appropriation act in 2005 that states: “That notwithstanding section 202 of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the Council shall consist of one member, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving as chairman and exercising all powers, functions, and duties of the Council.” See Pub. L. No. 109-54, Title III, 119 Stat. 543 (2005). This was apparently the consequence of President Clinton’s failure (or refusal) to appoint more than one member of the Council, see H.R. Rep. No. 104-628 104th Cong., 2d Sess. 70 (1996).
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Section 202 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4342, was effectively amended, although its language was not changed, by a series of annual riders to appropriation acts beginning in 1997 and culminating in a permanent rider to an appropriation act in 2005 that states: “That notwithstanding section 202 of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the Council shall consist of one member, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving as chairman and exercising all powers, functions, and duties of the Council.” ''See'' ([https://www.congress.gov/109/plaws/publ54/PLAW-109publ54.pdf Pub. L. No. 109-54], Title III). This was apparently the consequence of President Clinton’s failure (or refusal) to appoint more than one member of the Council. ''See'' [https://www.congress.gov/104/crpt/hrpt628/CRPT-104hrpt628.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 104-628] (1996).
  
Section 4332a of Title 42 was added to NEPA by Section 1319 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), Pub. L. No. 112-141, 126 Stat. 405 (2012), a massive reauthorization of the federal highway program. Although contained in the federal highway authorization act in order to expedite environmental planning for new and expanded highways, the new provision applies generally to environmental planning.
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Section 4332a of Title 42 was added to NEPA by Section 1319 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) ([https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-112publ141/pdf/PLAW-112publ141.pdf Pub. L. No. 112-141]), a massive reauthorization of the federal highway program. Although contained in the federal highway authorization act in order to expedite environmental planning for new and expanded highways, the new provision applies generally to environmental planning.
  
 
===Source Note===
 
===Source Note===
  
There is an extensive literature of commentary, criticism, and analysis of NEPA and its implementation. Of course, the most authoritative pronouncements emanate from the Council on Environmental Quality. A selection of various books and articles on diverse aspects of NEPA practice and procedure is included in the Bibliography.
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There is an extensive literature of commentary, criticism, and analysis of NEPA and its implementation. Of course, the most authoritative pronouncements emanate from the [https://ceq.doe.gov/ Council on Environmental Quality]
  
 
==Bibliography==
 
==Bibliography==
  
===Legislative History===
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===Legislative History and Congressional Documents===
*Congressional White Paper on a National Policy for the Environment submitted to the United States Congress under the Auspices of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs and the House Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong., 2d Sess. (Committee Print 1968).
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<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
*Joint House-Senate Colloquium to Discuss a National Policy for the Environment, Hearing before the Senate Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong., 2d Sess. (Committee Print 1968).
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*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/laws-regulations/Congress-White-Paper.pdf Congressional White Paper on a National Policy for the Environment] submitted to the United States Congress under the Auspices of the S. Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs and the H. Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong. (1968).
*Staff of Subcomm. on Science, Research, and Development of the House Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong., 2d Sess. Report of Managing the Environment (Committee Print 1968).
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*''Joint House-Senate Colloquium to Discuss a National Policy for the Environment'', Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong. (1968).
*Conference Report on S.1075, H.R. Rep. No. 91-765 (Dec. 17, 1969); reprinted in 1969 U.S. Code Cong. & Ad. News 2767.
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*''Report of Managing the Environment'', Staff of Subcomm. on Science, Research, and Dev. of the H. Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong. (1968).
*Senate Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, Report to Accompany S.1075, S. Rep. No. 91-296 (July 9, 1969), 91st Cong., 1st Sess.
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*Conference Report on S. 1075, H.R. Rep. No. 91-765 (1969).
*House of Representatives Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, Report to Accompany H.R. 12,549, H.R. Rep. No. 91-378 (July 11, 19, 1969), 91st Cong., 1st Sess., reprinted in 1969 U.S. Code Cong. & Ad. News 2751.
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*Report to Accompany S. 1075, S. Rep. No. 91-296 (1969).
*Comments from Congressman Ribble on an Amendment to H.R. 4348, April 18, 2012, Cong. Rec. H1946–55.
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*Report to Accompany H.R. 12549, [https://coast.noaa.gov/data/Documents/OceanLawSearch/House%20Report%20No.%2091-378%20Part%201.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 91-378] (1969).
*MAP-21 Conference Report to Accompany H.R. 4348, Committee on Conference, House of Representatives, 112th Cong., 2d Sess., at 598 (June 28, 2012).
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*''Hearings on the Administration of the National Environmental Policy Act'', Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation of the H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 91st Cong. (1971) (2 parts).
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*''Hearings on National Environmental Policy Act Oversight'', Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Env’t of the H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 94th Cong. (1976).
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*Staff of Senate Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, ''Council on Environmental Quality: Oversight Report'', 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (1976).
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*''Hearings on CEQ Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act'', Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Env’t, H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 95th Cong. (1978).
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*''Hearings on Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act by the Council on Environmental Quality'', Before the Subcomm. on Toxic Substances and Envtl. Oversight of the S. Comm. on Env’t and Public Works, 97th Cong. (1982).
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*''Hearings on Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'', Before the Subcomm. on Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances of the S. Comm. on Environmental and Public Works, 100th Cong. (1987-1988).
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*''Hearing on the Application of the National Environmental Policy Act'', Before the Subcomm. on Oversight and Investigations of the S. Comm. on Energy and Natural Resources, 104th Cong. (1995).
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*''Hearing on the Efforts by the Federal Land Management Agencies to Strengthen the National Environmental Policy Act'', Before the Subcomm. on Oversight and Investigations, S. Comm. on Energy and Natural Resources, 104th Cong. (1996).
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*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-105hhrg47866/pdf/CHRG-105hhrg47866.pdf Problems and Issues with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969], Oversight Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Resources Before the H. Comm. on Res., 105th Cong. (1998).
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*MAP-21 Conference Report to Accompany H.R. 4348, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-112hrpt557/pdf/CRPT-112hrpt557.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 112-557] (2012).
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*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg73228/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg73228.pdf The Council on Environmental Quality’s FY 2013 Funding Request and the Effects on NEPA, National Ocean Policy and Other Federal Environmental Policy Initiatives], Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 112th Cong. (2012).
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*''[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-113hhrg80524/pdf/CHRG-113hhrg80524.pdf Hearing on H.R. 250, H.R. 382, H.R. 432, H.R. 758, H.R. 1512, H.R. 1434, H.R. 1439, H.R. 1459, and H.R. 885]'', Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Pub. Lands and Envtl. Regulation of the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 113th Cong. (2013).
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*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-113hhrg82951/pdf/CHRG-113hhrg82951.pdf The Department of the Interior’s Proposal to Use a Categorical Exclusion Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for Adding Species to the Lacey Act’s List of Injurious Wildlife], Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs of the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 113th Cong. (2013).
 +
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-113hrpt385/pdf/CRPT-113hrpt385.pdf H.R. Rep. No. 113-385] (2014).
 +
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-115hhrg27722/pdf/CHRG-115hhrg27722.pdf Modernizing NEPA for the 21st Century], Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 115th Cong. (2017) ([https://naturalresources.house.gov/calendar/eventsingle.aspx?EventID=403418 video]).
 +
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-115hhrg29883/pdf/CHRG-115hhrg29883.pdf The Weaponization of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Implications of Environmental Lawfare], Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 115th Cong. (2018) ([https://naturalresources.house.gov/calendar/eventsingle.aspx?EventID=404527 video]).
 +
</div>
  
===Other Government Documents===
+
===Executive Orders and OMB/OIRA Documents===
====Executive Orders====
 
*Executive Order 11,514, [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/Req-EO11514envtlquality.pdf Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality] (Mar. 5, 1970).
 
*Executive Order 12,852, President’s Council on Sustainable Development, 58 Fed. Reg. 39,107 (July 19, 1993).
 
*Executive Order 12,898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations, 60 Fed. Reg. 6,381 (Feb. 11, 1994).
 
*Executive Order 13,514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 8, 2009).
 
*Executive Order 13,807, [https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2017-08-24/pdf/2017-18134.pdf Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure Projects], 82 Fed. Reg. 40,463 (Aug. 15, 2017).
 
  
====Council on Environmental Quality====
+
*Executive Order 11514, [https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/Req-EO11514envtlquality.pdf Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality], 35 Fed. Reg. 4247 (Mar. 5, 1970).
 +
*Executive Order 11991, ''Relating to Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality'', 42 Fed. Reg. 26967 (May 24, 1977).
 +
*Executive Order 12852, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/WCPD-1993-07-05/pdf/WCPD-1993-07-05-Pg1201.pdf President’s Council on Sustainable Development], 58 Fed. Reg. 39107 (July 19, 1993).
 +
*Executive Order 12898, [https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12898.pdf Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations], 60 Fed. Reg. 6381 (Feb. 11, 1994).
 +
*Executive Order 13514, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/DCPD-200900783/pdf/DCPD-200900783.pdf Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance], 74 Fed. Reg. 52117 (Oct. 8, 2009).
 +
*Executive Order 13807, [https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2017-08-24/pdf/2017-18134.pdf Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure Projects], 82 Fed. Reg. 40463 (Aug. 15, 2017).
 +
*M-18-13, [https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/M-18-13.pdf One Federal Decision Framework for the Environmental Review and Authorization Process for Major Infrastructure Projects Under Executive Order 13807] (Mar. 20, 2018).
 +
*[https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/MOU-One-Federal-Decision-m-18-13-Part-2-1.pdf Memorandum of Understanding Implementing One Federal Decision Under Executive Order 13807] (Apr. 9, 2018).
 +
*M-21-23, [https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/M-21-23.pdf Revocation of OMB Memorandum M-21-01, "Budget and Management Guidance on Updates to the Regulations Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act"] (April 26, 2021).
 +
 
 +
===ACUS Recommendations===
 +
 
 +
*73-6, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/73-6-ss.pdf Procedures for Resolution of Environmental Issues in Licensing Proceedings]
 +
*84-1, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/84-1_0.pdf Public Regulation of Siting of Industrial Development Projects]
 +
*85-2, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/85-2.pdf Agency Procedures for Performing Regulatory Analysis of Rules]
 +
 
 +
===Council on Environmental Quality Documents===
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
*Environmental Quality Annual Reports, 1970-1997 (when discontinued), available at https://ceq.doe.gov/ ceq_reports/annual_environmental_quality_reports.html.
+
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/ceq-reports/annual_environmental_quality_reports.html Environmental Quality Annual Reports, 1970-1997].
*Environmental Impact Statements: An Analysis of Six Years’ Experience by Seventy Federal Agencies (Mar. 1976).
+
*''Environmental Impact Statements: An Analysis of Six Years’ Experience by Seventy Federal Agencies'' (1976).
 
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-40Questions.pdf Memorandum to Agencies: Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ’s National Environmental Policy Act Regulations] (Mar. 23, 1981)
 
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-40Questions.pdf Memorandum to Agencies: Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ’s National Environmental Policy Act Regulations] (Mar. 23, 1981)
*Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping (Apr. 30, 1981) (http:// energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_Scoping_Guidance.pdf).
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_Scoping_Guidance.pdf Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping] (Apr. 30, 1981).
*Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations, 48 Fed. Reg. 34,263–68 (July 28, 1983) (http://energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-Guidance
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-GuidanceRegulations.pdf Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations], 48 Fed. Reg. 34263–68 (July 28, 1983).
Regulations.pdf).
+
 
*Memorandum to Heads of Departments and Agencies Regarding Pollution Prevention and the National Environmental Policy Act, 58 Fed. Reg. 6,478–81 (Jan. 29, 1993) (http:// energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQPollutionPreventionNEPA.pdf).
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-PollutionPreventionNEPA.pdf Memorandum to Heads of Departments and Agencies Regarding Pollution Prevention and the National Environmental Policy Act], 58 Fed. Reg. 6478–81 (Jan. 29, 1993).
*Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations into Environmental Impact Analysis Under the National Environmental Policy Act, January 1993 (http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-BiodiversityConsiderations.pdf).
+
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-publications/Incorporating_Biodiversity_1993.pdf Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations into Environmental Impact Analysis Under the National Environmental Policy Act] (1993).
*Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Jan. 1997). available at http:/ /energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQConsidCumulEffects.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-ConsidCumulEffects.pdf Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act] (1997).
*Guidance on NEPA Analyses for Transboundary Impacts (1 July 1997), available at https://www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/transguide.pdf.http://energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/2014/08/f18/CEQTransboundaryGuidance_07_01_97.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/08/f18/CEQTransboundaryGuidance_07_01_97.pdf Guidance on NEPA Analyses for Transboundary Impacts] (1997).
*Environmental Justice Guidance Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Dec. 10, 1997), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQEJGuidance.pdf.
+
*[https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-02/documents/ej_guidance_nepa_ceq1297.pdf Environmental Justice Guidance Under the National Environmental Policy Act] (1997).
*Memorandum for Heads of Federal Agencies: Designation of Non-Federal Agencies to be Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of NEPA (July 28, 1999), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-DesigNonfedCoop Agencies.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-DesigNonfedCoopAgencies.pdf Memorandum for Heads of Federal Agencies: Designation of Non-Federal Agencies to be Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of NEPA] (July 28, 1999).
*Memorandum for Heads of Federal Agencies: Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (January 30, 2002), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/ RedDont/G-CEQ-CoopAgenciesImplem.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-CoopAgenciesImplem.pdf Memorandum for Heads of Federal Agencies: Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act] (Jan. 30, 2002).
*Memorandum to Heads of Federal Agencies: Reporting Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (December 23, 2004), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/ RedDont/G-CEQ-CoopAgenciesReporting.pdf.
+
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-regulations-and-guidance/regs/connaughton.pdf Memorandum to Heads of Federal Agencies: Reporting Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act] (Dec. 23, 2004).
*Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis (June 24, 2005), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQPastActsCumulEffects.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-PastActsCumulEffects.pdf Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis] (June 24, 2005).
*Memorandum for Federal NEPA Contacts: Emergency Actions and NEPA (September 8, 2005), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQEmergencyGuidance.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-EmergencyGuidance.pdf Memorandum for Federal NEPA Contacts: Emergency Actions and NEPA] (Sept. 8, 2005).
*Council on Environmental Quality and Office of Management and Budget, Memorandum on Environmental Conflict Resolution (November 28, 2005), available at https://www.udall.gov/documents/Institute/OMB_CEQ_ Memorandum_2005.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/04/f15/OMB%20CEQ%20Joint%20Statement_1.pdf Memorandum on Environmental Conflict Resolution] (Nov. 28, 2005).
*Aligning National Environmental Policy Act Process with Environmental Management Systems (April 1, 2007), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_NEPA_EMS_ Guide-04-2007_1.pdf.
+
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-publications/NEPA_EMS_Guide_final_Apr2007.pdf Aligning National Environmental Policy Act Process with Environmental Management Systems] (2007).
*Council on Environmental Quality Collaboration in NEPA A Handbook for NEPA Practitioners (Oct. 1, 2007), available at https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-publications/NEPA_EMS_Guide_final_Apr2007.pdf.http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_Collaboration _in_NEPA_10-2007.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/CEQ_Collaboration_in_NEPA_10-2007.pdf Collaboration in NEPA: A Handbook for NEPA Practitioners] (2007).
*A Citizen’s Guide to the NEPA: Having Your Voice Heard (Dec. 1, 2007), available at http://energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-CitizensGuide.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-CitizensGuide.pdf A Citizen’s Guide to the NEPA: Having Your Voice Heard] (2007).
*DRAFT NEPA Guidance on Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Feb. 18, 2010), available at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/documents/nepa_final_ghg_guidance.pdf.www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ microsites/ceq/20100218-nepa-consideration-effects-ghg-draft-guidance.pdf.
+
*[https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1006/ML100601337.pdf Draft NEPA Guidance on Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions] (Feb. 18, 2010).
*Memorandum for Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies: Emergencies and NEPA (May 12, 2010) available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/ RedDont/G-CEQ-Emergencies.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-Emergencies.pdf Memorandum for Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies: Emergencies and NEPA] (May 12, 2010).
*Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Dec. 6, 2010), available at http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/ RedDont/G-CEQ-CatEx_guidance.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/G-CEQ-CatEx_guidance.pdf Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act] (Dec. 6, 2010).
*Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact (Jan. 14, 2011), available at http://energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/NEPA-CEQ_Mitigation_and_Monitoring_Guidance_14Jan2011. pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/06/f35/NEPA-CEQ_Mitigation_and_Monitoring_Guidance_14Jan2011.pdf Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact] (Jan. 14, 2011).
*Final Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Mar. 12, 2012), available at http:// energy.gov/sites/prod/files/NEPA_CEQGuidance_EfficientReviews UnderNEPA_03_12_12.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/NEPA_CEQGuidance_EfficientReviewsUnderNEPA_03_12_12.pdf Final Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews Under the National Environmental Policy Act] (Mar. 12, 2012).
*Council on Environmental Quality and Office of Management and Budget, OMB and CEQ Joint Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution (Sept. 7, 2012), available at http://energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/OMB_CEQ_Env_Collab_Conflict_Resolution_20120907-2012.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/OMB_CEQ_Env_Collab_Conflict_Resolution_20120907-2012.pdf Joint Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution] (Sept. 7, 2012).
*NEPA and NHPA: A Handbook for Integrating NEPA and Section 106 (Mar. 5, 2013), available at http:// energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-NEPA_NHPA_Section_106_Handbook_ Mar2013.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/G-CEQ-NEPA_NHPA_Section_106_Handbook_Mar2013.pdf NEPA and NHPA: A Handbook for Integrating NEPA and Section 106] (2013).
*NEPA and CEQA: Integrating State and Federal Environmental Reviews (Feb. 14, 2014), available at http:/ /energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f9/NEPA_CEQA_FinalHandbook_ February2014_0.pdf.
+
*[https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f9/NEPA_CEQA_FinalHandbook_February2014_0.pdf NEPA and CEQA: Integrating State and Federal Environmental Reviews] (2014).
*The Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report of the Council on Environmental Quality (1994-1995) (http:// clinton4.nara.gov/media/pdf/front_1.pdf).
+
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-regulations-and-guidance/Effective_Use_of_Programmatic_NEPA_Reviews_Final_Dec2014_searchable.pdf Memorandum for Heads of Departments and Agencies: Guidance on Effective Use of Programmatic NEPA Reviews] (Dec. 18, 2014).
*Initial List of Actions to Enhance and Modernize the Federal Environmental Review and Authorization Process, 82 Fed. Reg. 43,226 (Sept. 17, 2017).
+
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/ceq-regulations-and-guidance/Emergencies_and_NEPA.pdf Emergencies and the National Environmental Policy Act] (2016).
 +
*[https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2017-09-14/pdf/2017-19425.pdf Initial List of Actions to Enhance and Modernize the Federal Environmental Review and Authorization Process], 82 Fed. Reg. 43226 (Sept. 17, 2017).
 +
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/guidance/ceq_guidance_nepa-ghg.html Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gases] (2019).
 +
*[https://ceq.doe.gov/docs/nepa-practice/emergencies-and-nepa-guidance-2020.pdf Emergencies and NEPA Guidance] (2020).
 +
*[https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2022/04/20/2022-08288/national-environmental-policy-act-implementing-regulations-revisions National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Regulations] (2022).
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
====Congressional Hearings====
 
*Hearings on Administration of the National Environmental Policy Act Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation, H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 91st Cong., 2d Sess. (Committee Serial 91-41, 1971) (2 parts).
 
*Oversight Hearing on the Problems and Issues with the National Environmental Policy Act Before the H. Comm. on Resources Before the H. Comm. on Resources, 105th Cong., 2d Sess. (Mar. 18, 1998).
 
*Hearings on National Environmental Policy Act Oversight Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Env’t Before the H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (Committee Serial 94-14, 1976).
 
*Staff of Senate Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, Council on Environmental Quality: Oversight Report, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Committee Print 1976).
 
*Hearings on CEQ Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Env’t, House Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 95th Cong., 2d Sess. (Committee Serial 95-35, 1978).
 
*Hearings on Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act by the Council on Environmental Quality Before the Subcomm. on Toxic Substances and Envtl. Oversight Before the S. Comm. on Env’t and Public Works, 97th Cong., 2d Sess. (Committee Serial 97-H56, July 21, 1982).
 
*Hearings on Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Before the Subcomm. on Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances, S. Comm. on Environmental and Public Works, 100th Cong., 1st and 2d Sess. (S. Hrg. 100-509, Nov. 24, 1987; Jan. 14, 1988).
 
*Hearing on the Application of the National Environmental Policy Act Before the Subcomm. on Oversight and Investigations, S. Comm. on Energy and Natural Resources, 104th Cong., 1st Sess. (S. Hrg. 10481, June 7, 1995).
 
*Hearing on the Efforts by the Federal Land Management Agencies to Strengthen the National Environmental Policy Act Before the Subcomm. on Oversight and Investigations, S. Comm. on Energy and Natural Resources, 104th Cong., 2d Sess. (S. Hrg. 104-775, Sept. 26, 1996).
 
  
 
===Books and Articles===
 
===Books and Articles===
====General Treatments====
 
*Ray Clark & Larry Canter, Environmental Policy and NEPA: Past, Present, and Future (CRC Press 1997).
 
*Environmental Law Institute, NEPA Deskbook (4th ed. 2014).
 
*Robert L. Fischman & Mark S. Squillace, Environmental Law—Environmental Decisionmaking: NEPA and the Endangered Species Act (Anderson Publishing Co., 3d ed. 2000).
 
*Valerie Fogelman, Guide to the National Environmental Policy Act: Interpretations, Applications, and Compliance (Praeger 1990).
 
*Robert L. Glicksman, David L. Markell, William B. Buzbee, Daniel R. Mandelker & Daniel Bodansky, Environmental Protection: Law and Policy, Chapter IV (Wolters Kluwer 2011).
 
*Craig N. Johnston, William F. Funk & Victor B. Flatt, Legal Protection of the Environment, Chapter 2 (West Publishing, 3d ed. 2010).
 
*Daniel R. Mandelker, NEPA Law and Litigation (Clark Boardman Callaghan, 2d ed., 2014).
 
*William Rodgers, Jr., Environmental Law, Chapter 9 (West Publishing, 2d ed. 1994).
 
*Serge Taylor, Making Bureaucracies Think: The Environmental Impact Statement Strategy of Administrative Reform (Stanford U. Press 1984).
 
====Seminal Law Review Articles and Monographs====
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
*Frederick R. Anderson, NEPA in the Courts: A Legal Analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act (Resources for the Future, Inc.; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973).
 
*Richard R. L. Andrews et al., Substantive Guidance for Environmental Impact Assessment: An Exploratory Study (The Institute for Ecology, Butler Univ., 1977).
 
*Eugene Bardach & Lucian Pugliaresi, The Environmental Impact Statement vs. The Real World, 49 Pub. Interest 22 (1977).
 
*Richard K. Berg & Roger C. Cramton, On Leading a Horse to Water: NEPA and the Federal Bureaucracy, 71 Mich. L. Rev. 511 (1973).
 
*L. Caldwell, A Study of Ways to Improve the Scientific Content and Methodology of Environmental Impact Analysis (School of Public and Envtl. Affairs, Indiana Univ., 1982).
 
*Arthur F. Ferguson, The Sin of Omission: Inaction as Action Under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 53 Ind. L.J. 497 (1978).
 
*Melanie Fisher, The CEQ Regulations: New Stage in the Evolution of NEPA, 3 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 347 (1979).
 
*Ian M. Kirschner, Comment, NEPA’s Forgotten Clause: Impact Statements for Legislative Proposals, 58 B.U. L. Rev. 560 (1978).
 
*Harold Leventhal, Environmental Decisionmaking and the Role of the Courts, 122 U. Pa. L. Rev. 509 (1974).
 
*Thomas O. McGarity, Courts, the Agencies and NEPA Threshold Issues, 55 Tex. L. Rev. 801 (1977).
 
*Arthur W. Murphy, The National Environmental Policy Act and the Licensing Process: Environmentalist Magna Carta or Agency Coup de Grace?, Report to the Administrative Conference of the U.S., 3 ACUS 363 (1975), reprinted in 72 Colum. L. Rev. 963 (1972).
 
*Mark A. Pridgeon et al., State Environmental Policy Acts: A Survey of Recent Developments, 2 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 419 (1978).
 
*Mark Reeve, Comment, Scientific Uncertainty and the National Environmental Policy Act—The Council on Environmental Quality’s Regulation 40 CFR section 1502.22, 60 Wash. L. Rev. 101 (1984).
 
*Charles F. Weiss, Note, Federal Agency Treatment of Uncertainty in Environmental Impact Statements Under the CEQ’s Amended NEPA Regulation § 1502.22: Worst Case Analysis or Risk Threshold?, 86 Mich. L. Rev. 777 (1988).
 
*N.C. Yost, The Governance of Environmental Affairs—Toward Consensus (New York: Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, 1982).
 
</div>
 
====More Recent Analyses====
 
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
 
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
*Michael C. Blumm & Keith Mosman, The Overlooked Role of the National Environmental Policy Act in Protecting the Western Environment: NEPA in the Ninth Circuit, 2 Wash. J. Envtl. L. & Pol’y 193 (2012).
+
*Frederick R. Anderson, ''NEPA in the Courts: A Legal Analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act'' (Res. for the Future, Inc.; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1973).
*Michael C. Blumm & Marla Nelson, Pluralism and the Environment Revisited: The Role of Comment Agencies in NEPA Litigation, 37 Vt. L. Rev. 5 (2013).
+
*Richard R. L. Andrews et al., ''Substantive Guidance for Environmental Impact Assessment: An Exploratory Study'' (Inst. for Ecology, Butler Univ., 1977).
*Sharon Buccino, NEPA under Assault: Congressional and Administrative Proposals Would Weaken Environmental Review and Public Participation, 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 50 (2003).
+
*Eugene Bardach & Lucian Pugliaresi, [https://www.nationalaffairs.com/storage/app/uploads/public/58e/1a4/c4c/58e1a4c4c619d491120331.pdf The Environmental Impact Statement vs. The Real World], 49 Pub. Int. 22 (1977).
*Wendy B. Davis, The Fox Is Guarding the Henhouse: Enhancing the Role of the EPA in FONSI Determinations Pursuant to NEPA, 39 Akron L. Rev. 35 (2006).
+
*Richard K. Berg & Roger C. Cramton, [https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2338&context=facpub On Leading a Horse to Water: NEPA and the Federal Bureaucracy], 71 Mich. L. Rev. 511 (1973).
*Holly Doremus, Learning From Disaster: Lessons for the Future From the Gulf of Mexico: Symposium Article: Through Another’s Eyes: Getting the Benefit of Outside Perspectives in Environmental Review, 38 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 247 (2011).
+
*Michael C. Blumm & Keith Mosman, [https://digital.lib.washington.edu/dspace-law/bitstream/handle/1773.1/1190/2WJELP193.pdf?sequence=1 The Overlooked Role of the National Environmental Policy Act in Protecting the Western Environment: NEPA in the Ninth Circuit], 2 Wash. J. Envtl. L. & Pol’y 193 (2012).
*Victor B. Flatt, The “Worst Case” May Be the Best: Rethinking NEPA Law to Avoid Future Environmental Disasters, 6 Envt’l & Energy L & Pol’y J 25 (Fall 2011).
+
*Michael C. Blumm & Marla Nelson, [https://lawreview.vermontlaw.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/02-Blumm.pdf Pluralism and the Environment Revisited: The Role of Comment Agencies in NEPA Litigation], 37 Vt. L. Rev. 5 (2013).
*Bradley C. Karkkainen, Whither NEPA?, 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 333 (2004).
+
*Sharon Buccino, ''NEPA under Assault: Congressional and Administrative Proposals Would Weaken Environmental Review and Public Participation'', 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 50 (2003).
*Bradley C. Karkkainen, Toward a Smarter NEPA: Monitoring and Managing Government’s Environmental Performance, 102 Colum. L. Rev. 903 (2002).
+
*Michael Burger; Jessica Wentz, [https://scholarship.law.columbia.edu/sabin_climate_change/100/ Downstream and Upstream Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Proper Scope of NEPA Review], 41 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 109 (2017).
*Courtney A. Schultz, History of the Cumulative Effects Analysis Requirement Under NEPA and Its Interpretation in U.S. Forest Service Case Law, 27 J. Envtl. L. & Litig. 125 (2012).
+
*L. Caldwell, ''A Study of Ways to Improve the Scientific Content and Methodology of Environmental Impact Analysis'' (Sch. of Pub. & Envtl. Affairs, Ind. Univ., 1982).
*James T.B. Tripp & Nathan G. Alley, Streamlining NEPA’s Environmental Review Process: Suggestions for Agency Reform, 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 74 (2003).
+
*Ray Clark & Larry Canter, ''Environmental Policy and NEPA: Past, Present, and Future'' (CRC Press 1997).
*Helen Leanne Seassio, Legislative and Executive Efforts to Modernize NEPA and Create Efficiencies in Environmental Review, 45 Tex. Envtl. L.J. 317 (2015).
+
*Jamison E. Colburn, [http://www.columbiaenvironmentallaw.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2016/07/Colburn_-_The_Risk_in_Discretion.pdf The Risk in Discretion: Substantive NEPA’s Significance], 41 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 1 (2016).
*John Ruple, Mark Capone, NEPA, FLPMA, and Impact Reduction: An Empirical Assessment of BLM Resource Management Planning and NEPA in the Mountain West, 46 Envtl. L. 953 (2016).
+
*Wendy B. Davis, [https://ideaexchange.uakron.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1288&context=akronlawreview The Fox Is Guarding the Henhouse: Enhancing the Role of the EPA in FONSI Determinations Pursuant to NEPA], 39 Akron L. Rev. 35 (2006).
*Jamison E. Colburn, The Risk in Discretion: Substantive NEPA's Significance, 41 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 1 (2016).
+
*Holly Doremus, [https://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1688&context=ealr Through Another’s Eyes: Getting the Benefit of Outside Perspectives in Environmental Review], 38 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 247 (2011).
*Michael Burger; Jessica Wentz, [http://harvardelr.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Burger_Wentz.pdf Downstream and Upstream Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Proper Scope of NEPA Review], 41 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 109 (2017).
+
*Envtl. Law Inst., ''NEPA Deskbook'' (4th ed. 2014).
 +
*Arthur F. Ferguson, [https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3324&context=ilj The Sin of Omission: Inaction as Action Under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969], 53 Ind. L.J. 497 (1978).
 +
*Robert L. Fischman & Mark S. Squillace, ''Environmental Law—Environmental Decisionmaking: NEPA and the Endangered Species Act'' (Anderson Publ’g Co., 3d ed. 2000).
 +
*Melanie Fisher, ''The CEQ Regulations: New Stage in the Evolution of NEPA'', 3 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 347 (1979).
 +
*Victor B. Flatt, [https://www.law.uh.edu/eelpj/publications/6-2/02Flatt.pdf The “Worst Case” May Be the Best: Rethinking NEPA Law to Avoid Future Environmental Disasters], 6 Envt’l & Energy L & Pol’y J 25 (2011).
 +
*Valerie Fogelman, ''Guide to the National Environmental Policy Act: Interpretations, Applications, and Compliance'' (Praeger 1990).
 +
*Robert L. Glicksman, David L. Markell, William B. Buzbee, Daniel R. Mandelker & Daniel Bodansky, ''Environmental Protection: Law and Policy, Chapter IV'' (Wolters Kluwer 2011).
 +
*Craig N. Johnston, William F. Funk & Victor B. Flatt, ''Legal Protection of the Environment, Chapter 2'' (West Publ’g, 3d ed. 2010).
 +
*Bradley C. Karkkainen, ''Whither NEPA?'', 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 333 (2004).
 +
*Bradley C. Karkkainen, ''Toward a Smarter NEPA: Monitoring and Managing Government’s Environmental Performance'', 102 Colum. L. Rev. 903 (2002).
 +
*Ian M. Kirschner, Comment, ''NEPA’s Forgotten Clause: Impact Statements for Legislative Proposals'', 58 B.U. L. Rev. 560 (1978).
 +
*Harold Leventhal, [https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=5731&context=penn_law_review Environmental Decisionmaking and the Role of the Courts], 122 U. Pa. L. Rev. 509 (1974).
 +
*Daniel R. Mandelker, ''NEPA Law and Litigation'' (Clark Boardman Callaghan, 2d ed. 2014).
 +
*Thomas O. McGarity, ''The Courts, the Agencies and NEPA Threshold Issues'', 55 Tex. L. Rev. 801 (1977).
 +
*Thomas O. McGarity, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1985-02%20Pt.1%20The%20Role%20of%20Regulatory%20Analysis%20in%20Regulatory%20Decisionmaking.pdf The Role of Regulatory Analysis in Regulatory Decisionmaking] (May 1985) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Arthur W. Murphy, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Q%201973-06%20MURPHY.A%20Envir%20Issues%20in%20Licensing%203%20ACUS%20363%20xr%20U4.pdf The National Environmental Policy Act and the Licensing Process: Environmentalist Magna Carta or Agency Coup de Grace?] (1975) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Gregory L. Ogden, [https://www.acus.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1984-01%20Public%20Regulation%20of%20Siting%20of%20Industrial%20Development%20Projects.pdf Report on Public Regulation of Siting of Industrial Development Projects] (July 1984) (report to ACUS).
 +
*Mark A. Pridgeon et al., ''State Environmental Policy Acts: A Survey of Recent Developments'', 2 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 419 (1978).
 +
*Mark Reeve, Comment, ''Scientific Uncertainty and the National Environmental Policy Act—The Council on Environmental Quality’s Regulation 40 CFR section 1502.22'', 60 Wash. L. Rev. 101 (1984).
 +
*Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., [https://scholarship.law.wm.edu/wmelpr/vol43/iss1/6/ Dealing With Climate Change Under the National Environmental Policy Act, Climate Change--Laws, regulations and rules, Environmental Impact Statements, Greenhouse Gases], 43 Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 173 (2018).
 +
*William Rodgers, Jr., ''Environmental Law, Chapter 9'' (West Publ’g, 2d ed. 1994).
 +
*John Ruple, Mark Capone, [https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/23293-46-4ruplecaponepdf NEPA, FLPMA, and Impact Reduction: An Empirical Assessment of BLM Resource Management Planning and NEPA in the Mountain West], 46 Envtl. L. 953 (2016).
 +
*Courtney A. Schultz, [https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/36686883.pdf History of the Cumulative Effects Analysis Requirement Under NEPA and Its Interpretation in U.S. Forest Service Case Law], 27 J. Envtl. L. & Litig. 125 (2012).
 +
*Helen Leanne Seassio, ''Legislative and Executive Efforts to Modernize NEPA and Create Efficiencies in Environmental Review'', 45 Tex. Envtl. L.J. 317 (2015).
 +
*Serge Taylor, ''Making Bureaucracies Think: The Environmental Impact Statement Strategy of Administrative Reform'' (Stan. U. Press 1984).
 +
*James T.B. Tripp & Nathan G. Alley, ''Streamlining NEPA’s Environmental Review Process: Suggestions for Agency Reform'', 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 74 (2003).
 +
*Charles F. Weiss, Note, ''Federal Agency Treatment of Uncertainty in Environmental Impact Statements Under the CEQ’s Amended NEPA Regulation § 1502.22: Worst Case Analysis or Risk Threshold?'', 86 Mich. L. Rev. 777 (1988).
 +
*N.C. Yost, ''The Governance of Environmental Affairs—Toward Consensus'' (Aspen Inst. for Humanistic Studies, 1982).
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
===Agency Regulations===
 
===Agency Regulations===
Federal agencies have promulgated their own individualized regulations within the parameters set by the CEQ regulations. See the Code of Federal Regulations Index (“environmental impact statements”) for a list of citations to agency regulations.
+
Federal agencies have promulgated their own individualized regulations within the parameters set by the CEQ regulations.  
 
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
 
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
*Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (36 C.F.R. Part 805)
+
*'''Advisory Council on Historic Preservation''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt36.3.805&rgn=div5 36 C.F.R. Part 805])
*Agency for International Development (22 C.F.R. Part 216)  
+
*'''Agency for International Development''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt22.1.216&rgn=div5 22 C.F.R. Part 216])
*Agricultural Research Service (7 C.F.R. Part 520)  
+
*'''Agricultural Research Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt7.6.520&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 520])
*Agriculture Department (7 C.F.R. Part 1B)
+
*'''Agriculture Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt7.1.1b&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 1b])
*Air Force Department (32 C.F.R. Part 989)  
+
*'''Air Force Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt32.6.989&rgn=div5 32 C.F.R. Part 989])
*Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (7 C.F.R. Part 372)
+
*'''Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt7.5.372&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 372])
*Army Corps of Engineers (33 C.F.R. Part 230)  
+
*'''Army Corps of Engineers''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt33.3.230&rgn=div5 33 C.F.R. Part 230])
*Army Department (32 C.F.R. Part 651)  
+
*'''Army Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt32.4.651&rgn=div5 32 C.F.R. Part 651])
*Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled (41 C.F.R. Part 51–7)
+
*'''Bureau of Land Management''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt43.2.1600&rgn=div5 43 C.F.R. Part 1600])
*Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (12 C.F.R. Part 1815)
+
*'''Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fdd252187d35762f68a91394c813f73a&mc=true&node=pt41.1.51_67&rgn=div5 41 C.F.R. Part 51–7])
*Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 C.F.R. Part 1021)  
+
*'''Community Development Financial Institutions Fund''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt12.10.1815&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 1815])
*Denali Commission (45 C.F.R. Part 900)
+
*'''Consumer Product Safety Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt16.2.1021&rgn=div5 16 C.F.R. Part 1021])
*Energy Department (10 C.F.R. Part 1021)  
+
*'''Denali Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt45.3.900&rgn=div5 45 C.F.R. Part 900])
*Environmental Protection Agency
+
*'''Energy Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt10.4.1021&rgn=div5 10 C.F.R. Part 1021])
**Procedures for Implementing NEPA (40 C.F.R. Part 6)
+
*'''Environmental Protection Agency'''
**Environmental Impact Assessment of Nongovernmental Activities in Antarctica (40 C.F.R. Part 8)  
+
**Procedures for Implementing NEPA ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.1.6&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 6])
**Criteria for the Evaluation of Permit Applications for Ocean Dumping of Materials (40 C.F.R. Part 227)
+
**Environmental Impact Assessment of Nongovernmental Activities in Antarctica ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.1.8&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 8])
*Environmental Quality Council
+
**Criteria for the Evaluation of Permit Applications for Ocean Dumping of Materials ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.27.227&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 227])
**Purpose, Policy, and Mandate (40 C.F.R. Part 1500)
+
*'''Environmental Quality Council'''
**NEPA and Agency Planning (40 C.F.R. Part 1501)
+
**Purpose and Policy ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1500&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1500])
**Environmental Impact Statement (40 C.F.R. Part 1502)
+
**NEPA and Agency Planning ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1501&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1501])
**Commenting (40 C.F.R. Part 1503)
+
**Environmental Impact Statement ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1502&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1502])
**Predecision Referrals to the Council of Proposed Federal Actions Determined to Be Environmentally Unsatisfactory (40 C.F.R. Part 1504)
+
**Commenting on Environmental Impact Statements ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1503&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1503])
** NEPA and Agency Decisionmaking (40 C.F.R. Part 1505)
+
**Predecision Referrals to the Council of Proposed Federal Actions Determined to Be Environmentally Unsatisfactory ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1504&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1504])
**Other Requirements of NEPA (40 C.F.R. Part 1506)  
+
**NEPA and Agency Decisionmaking ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1505&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1505])
**Agency Compliance (40 C.F.R. Part 1507)
+
**Other Requirements of NEPA ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1506&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1506])
**Terminology and Index (40 C.F.R. Part 1508)  
+
**Agency Compliance ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1507&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1507])
**Office of Environmental Quality Management Fund (40 C.F.R. Part 1518)
+
**Definitions ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1508&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1508])
*Export-Import Bank (12 C.F.R. Part 408)  
+
**Office of Environmental Quality Management Fund  ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt40.37.1518&rgn=div5 40 C.F.R. Part 1518])
*Farm Service Agency (7 C.F.R. Part 799)
+
*'''Export-Import Bank''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt12.5.408&rgn=div5 12 C.F.R. Part 408])
*USDA Rural Development (7 C.F.R. Part 1970)  
+
*'''Farm Service Agency''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt7.7.799&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 799])
*Federal Communications Commission (47 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. I)
+
*'''Federal Communications Commission'''              ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=sp47.1.1.i&rgn=div6 47 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. I])
*Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (18 C.F.R. Part 380)
+
*'''Federal Energy Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt18.1.380&rgn=div5 18 C.F.R. Part 380])
*Federal Highway Administration (23 C.F.R. Part 771)  
+
*'''Federal Highway Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt23.1.771&rgn=div5 23 C.F.R. Part 771])
*Federal Maritime Commission (46 C.F.R. Part 504)  
+
*'''Federal Maritime Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt46.9.504&rgn=div5 46 C.F.R. Part 504])
*Federal Trade Commission (16 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. I)
+
*'''Federal Trade Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=sp16.1.1.i&rgn=div6 16 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. I])
*Federal Transit Administration (23 C.F.R. Part 771)
+
*'''Federal Transit Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt23.1.771&rgn=div5 23 C.F.R. Part 771])
*Food and Drug Administration (21 C.F.R. Part 25)
+
*'''Food and Drug Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt21.1.25&rgn=div5 21 C.F.R. Part 25])
*Forest Service (36 C.F.R. Part 220)  
+
*'''Forest Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt36.2.220&rgn=div5 36 C.F.R. Part 220])
*Housing and Urban Development Department
+
*'''Housing and Urban Development Department'''
**Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=d883c54cce1263fa07b72070e3ac9b34&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title24/24cfr50_main_02.tpl 24 C.F.R. Part 50])  
+
**Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=d883c54cce1263fa07b72070e3ac9b34&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title24/24cfr50_main_02.tpl 24 C.F.R. Part 50])
**Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=d883c54cce1263fa07b72070e3ac9b34&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title24/24cfr58_main_02.tpl 24 C.F.R. Part 58])  
+
**Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=d883c54cce1263fa07b72070e3ac9b34&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title24/24cfr58_main_02.tpl 24 C.F.R. Part 58])
*Interior Department (43 C.F.R. Part 46)
+
*'''Interior Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt43.1.46&rgn=div5 43 C.F.R. Part 46])
*Justice Department (28 C.F.R. Part 61)  
+
*'''Justice Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt28.2.61&rgn=div5 28 C.F.R. Part 61])
*Labor Department (29 C.F.R. Part 11)
+
*'''Labor Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt29.1.11&rgn=div5 29 C.F.R. Part 11])
*Land Management Bureau (43 C.F.R. Part 1600)  
+
*'''Marine Mammal Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt50.11.530&rgn=div5 50 C.F.R. Part 530])
*Marine Mammal Commission (50 C.F.R. Part 530)
+
*'''National Aeronautics and Space Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt14.5.1216&rgn=div5 14 C.F.R. Part 1216])
*National Aeronautics and Space Administration (14 C.F.R. Part 1216)  
+
*'''National Highway Traffic Safety Administration''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt49.6.520&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 520])
*National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (49 C.F.R. Part 520)
+
*'''National Institute of Food and Agriculture''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt7.15.3407&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. 3407])
*National Institute of Food and Agriculture (7 C.F.R. 3407)  
+
*'''National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Estuarine Research Reserve System''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=se15.3.921_113&rgn=div8 15 C.F.R. § 921.13])
*National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Estuarine Research Reserve System (15 C.F.R. § 921.13)
+
*'''National Science Foundation''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt45.3.640&rgn=div5 45 C.F.R. Part 640])
*National Science Foundation (45 C.F.R. Part 640)  
+
*'''Natural Resources Conservation Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt7.6.650&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 650])
*Natural Resources Conservation Service (7 C.F.R. Part 650)
+
*'''Navy Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt32.5.775&rgn=div5 32 C.F.R. Part 775])
*Navy Department (32 C.F.R. Part 775)  
+
*'''Nuclear Regulatory Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt10.2.51&rgn=div5 10 C.F.R. Part 51])
*Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 C.F.R. Part 51)
+
*'''Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt36.3.907&rgn=div5 36 C.F.R. Part 907])
*Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation (36 C.F.R. Part 907)  
+
*'''Postal Service''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt39.1.775&rgn=div5 39 C.F.R. Part 775])
*Postal Service (39 C.F.R. Part 775)
+
*'''Presidio Trust''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt36.3.1010&rgn=div5 36 C.F.R. Part 1010])
*Presidio Trust (36 C.F.R. Part 1010)
+
*'''Securities and Exchange Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=sp17.3.200.k&rgn=div6 17 C.F.R. Part 200, Subpt. K])
*Securities and Exchange Commission (17 C.F.R. Part 200, Subpt. K)  
+
*'''State Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt22.1.161&rgn=div5 22 C.F.R. Part 161])
*State Department (22 C.F.R. Part 161)
+
*'''Surface Transportation Board''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt49.8.1105&rgn=div5 49 C.F.R. Part 1105])
*Surface Transportation Board (49 C.F.R. Part 1105)  
+
*'''USDA Rural Development''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt7.14.1970&rgn=div5 7 C.F.R. Part 1970])
*Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission (43 C.F.R. Part 10010)
+
*'''Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt43.2.10010&rgn=div5 43 C.F.R. Part 10010])
*Veterans Affairs Department (38 C.F.R. Part 26)  
+
*'''Veterans Affairs Department''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt38.2.26&rgn=div5 38 C.F.R. Part 26])
*Water Resources Council (18 C.F.R. Part 707)
+
*'''Water Resources Council''' ([https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a1f884a249de6fc78f751905b883e278&mc=true&node=pt18.2.707&rgn=div5 18 C.F.R. Part 707])
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
===Statutory Provisions===
+
==Statutory Provisions==
 
National Environmental Policy Act
 
National Environmental Policy Act
  
Line 247: Line 254:
 
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title42/chapter55/subchapter1&edition=prelim Subchapter I—Policies and Goals]
 
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title42/chapter55/subchapter1&edition=prelim Subchapter I—Policies and Goals]
  
*§ 4331. Congressional declaration of national environmental policy
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4331&num=0&edition=prelim § 4331. Congressional declaration of national environmental policy]
*§ 4332. Cooperation of agencies; reports; availability of information; recommendations; international and national coordination efforts
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4332&num=0&edition=prelim § 4332. Cooperation of agencies; reports; availability of information; recommendations; international and national coordination efforts]
*§ 4333. Conformity of administrative procedures to national environmental policy
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4333&num=0&edition=prelim § 4333. Conformity of administrative procedures to national environmental policy]
*§ 4334. Other statutory obligations of agencies
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4334&num=0&edition=prelim § 4334. Other statutory obligations of agencies]
*§ 4335. Efforts supplemental to existing authorizations
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4335&num=0&edition=prelim § 4335. Efforts supplemental to existing authorizations]
  
 
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title42/chapter55/subchapter2&edition=prelim Subchapter II—Council on Environmental Quality]
 
[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title42/chapter55/subchapter2&edition=prelim Subchapter II—Council on Environmental Quality]
  
*§ 4342. Establishment, membership; Chairman; appointments
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4342&num=0&edition=prelim § 4342. Establishment, membership; Chairman; appointments]
*§ 4343. Employment of personnel, experts and consultants
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4343&num=0&edition=prelim § 4343. Employment of personnel, experts and consultants]
*§ 4344. Duties and functions
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4344&num=0&edition=prelim § 4344. Duties and functions]
*§ 4345. Consultation with Citizens' Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality and other representatives
+
*[http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title42-section4345&num=0&edition=prelim § 4345. Consultation with Citizens’ Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality and other representatives]

Latest revision as of 16:28, 15 August 2022

42 U.S.C. §§ 4321–4347 (2012); enacted by Pub. L. No. 91-190, 83 Stat. 852, Jan. 1, 1970. Amended by Pub. L. No. 94-52, § 2, 89 Stat. 258, July 3, 1975; by Pub. L. No. 94-83, 89 Stat. 424, Aug. 9, 1975; by Pub. L. No. 112-141, Div. A, Title I, Subtitle C, § 1319, 126 Stat. 551, July 6, 2012.

Lead Agency:

Council on Environmental Quality

NEPA.gov

Overview

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first federal statute to use the “impact statement” approach in federal regulation. Its purpose is to require federal agencies to analyze and consider the environmental impact of their actions in an open and public process. NEPA also created the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) within the Executive Office of the President.

Environmental Impact Statements

The core of NEPA is found in section 102(2)(C) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 4332(2)(C)), which creates the environmental impact statement (EIS) requirement. The provision requires that:

all agencies of the Federal Government . . . include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official on—(i) the environmental impact of the proposed action, (ii) any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented, (iii) alternatives to the proposed action, (iv) the relationship between local short-term uses of man’s environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and (v) any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented.

The provision requires the responsible federal official to consult with and seek comments from other affected agencies. Copies of the statements and relevant comments must be made public and must accompany the proposal through the agency review process.

Despite language in NEPA that might be construed otherwise, the Supreme Court has held that NEPA does not impose any substantive requirement on agencies to favor the environment in the agency’s decisionmaking. See Strycker’s Bay Neighborhood Council, Inc. v. Karlen, 444 U.S. 223 (1980). Notwithstanding the lack of substantive requirements, NEPA has been the source of an extremely large number of challenges to agency action, arguing either that the agency failed to prepare an EIS when NEPA required it or that the EIS that the agency prepared was inadequate. Even after 45 years, agencies frequently lose these suits, with the result that the agency action is enjoined until the agency fully complies with NEPA’s procedural requirements.

Council on Environmental Quality Role

The CEQ, created by title 11 of NEPA, is the legal overseer of NEPA and was active in shaping NEPA law in its early years. Until 2000, it prepared extensive annual environmental quality reports pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which was effectively repealed in that year. CEQ took the lead in developing appropriate procedures for EIS preparation. In Executive Order 11514, Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality, issued shortly after NEPA’s passage, President Nixon gave CEQ the authority to issue guidelines to agencies for the preparation of EISs. The CEQ’s original guidelines were nonbinding but were relied upon by most federal agencies when promulgating their own procedures. Statements on Proposed Federal Actions Affecting the Environment, 36 Fed. Reg. 7724 (Apr. 23, 1971). In 1977, President Carter significantly expanded CEQ’s authority by giving it the power to issue binding regulations in Executive Order 11991, Relating to Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality, (May 24, 1977). These regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R Parts 1500–1508. See Implementation of Procedural Provisions, 43 Fed. Reg. 55978 (Nov. 28, 1978). The Supreme Court has since treated these regulations as deserving substantial deference. See Andrus v. Sierra Club, 442 U.S. 347 (1979).

The CEQ regulations cover many of the procedural issues that have emerged in the extensive litigation over the meaning of NEPA’s terms. The regulations, all in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, provide comprehensive guidance on what constitutes a “major federal action” requiring an EIS, the preparation of draft, supplemental and final statements, page limits, recommended format and content (Part 1502); the comment process (Part 1503); predecision referral of interagency disputes to CEQ (Part 1504); integration with agency decisionmaking (Part 1505); elimination of duplication with state and local requirements and procedures for filing with EPA (Part 1506); and agency compliance (Part 1507).

In addition to the regulations, CEQ also provided continuing guidance to agencies on implementation of NEPA. For example, in 1981 it published the Memorandum to Agencies Containing Answers to 40 Most Asked Questions on NEPA Regulations. In April 1981, it issued a Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping on the subject of “scoping guidance.” In 1983, after a solicitation of comments on the existing regulations and a two-year review process, CEQ published a supplemental memorandum giving further guidance to agencies. In 1993, it issued a guidance memorandum on the subject of pollution prevention and NEPA. In 1997, it issued two guidance memoranda, one on cumulative effects analysis under NEPA and the other on considering environmental justice under NEPA. In 2002, CEQ established a NEPA Task Force to undertake a thorough review of NEPA implementation. The Task Force’s report, Modernizing NEPA Implementation, was issued a year later. It contained recommendations designed to modernize the implementation of NEPA and make the NEPA process more effective and efficient.

More recently, CEQ has provided guidance on the use of categorical exclusions (in which agencies may exempt certain actions from NEPA review) and on the use of mitigating measures to avoid a finding of significant impact on the environment. In addition, in 2010 it issued draft guidance on how to consider the effects of climate change with respect to federal actions. On December 18, 2014, a revised guidance document was published for comment. The comment period closed on March 25, 2015. According to the CEQ website:

This guidance explains that agencies should consider both the potential effects of a proposed action on climate change, as indicated by its estimated greenhouse gas emissions, and the implications of climate change for the environmental effects of a proposed action. The guidance also emphasizes that agency analyses should be commensurate with projected greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts, and should employ appropriate quantitative or qualitative analytical methods to ensure useful information is available to inform the public and the decision-making process in distinguishing between alternatives and mitigations. It recommends that agencies consider 25,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on an annual basis as a reference point below which a quantitative analysis of greenhouse gas is not recommended unless it is easily accomplished based on available tools and data. Unlike the 2010 draft guidance, the revised draft guidance applies to all proposed Federal agency actions, including land and resource management actions. It reflects CEQ’s consideration of comments received on the 2010 draft guidance in addition to other Federal agency and affected stakeholder input. It does not create new or additional regulatory requirements.

The CEQ also compiles annual data on the number of environmental impact statements filed by agencies and the trends in NEPA litigation.

Originally, under 42 U.S.C. § 4342, CEQ consisted of three members appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, one of whom the President designated as chairman. However, beginning in 1997, Congress inserted a provision in annual appropriations acts stating that, notwithstanding this section of NEPA, the CEQ would consist of one member appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, who should serve as chairman.

Legislative History

Senators Henry M. Jackson and Ted Stevens introduced S. 1075, the original NEPA legislation, on February 18, 1969. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a research program on environmental problems and created the Council on Environmental Quality. A hearing was held April 16, 1969 during which witnesses (primarily Lynton Caldwell, professor of political science at Indiana University) urged the creation of an “action-forcing” mechanism, which later became the environmental impact statement. S. 1075 was reported with amendments and an accompanying report of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs on July 9, 1969. The following day the bill passed the Senate unanimously.

A House of Representatives’ subcommittee of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries held a series of hearings during May and June 1969 on various related bills. On July 1, 1969, Representative John Dingell and others introduced H.R. 12549, which became the leading House bill. It, however, lacked the impact statement requirement. On July 11, 1969, the full Committee reported H.R. 12549. A supplemental report was filed on July 19. On September 23, 1969, the House passed the Senate bill, but only after substituting the text of the House bill in place of the Senate’s language. It then requested a conference.

On October 8, 1969, after listening to Senator Jackson address the differences between the two versions, the Senate voted to insist on its version and appointed conferees. On December 17, 1969, the conference committee reported out a substitute version of S. 1075. This compromise version accepted the Senate’s environmental impact statement requirement, adding the language “to the fullest extent possible.” That same day, the Senate approved the Conference Report. The House followed suit on December 23. The bill became Pub. L. No. 91-190 on January 1, 1970.

Section 201 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which required the President to transmit an annual report to Congress relating to the environment, was eliminated by the Federal Reports Elimination and Sunset Act of 1995 (Pub. L. No. 104-66).

Section 202 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4342, was effectively amended, although its language was not changed, by a series of annual riders to appropriation acts beginning in 1997 and culminating in a permanent rider to an appropriation act in 2005 that states: “That notwithstanding section 202 of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the Council shall consist of one member, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving as chairman and exercising all powers, functions, and duties of the Council.” See (Pub. L. No. 109-54, Title III). This was apparently the consequence of President Clinton’s failure (or refusal) to appoint more than one member of the Council. See H.R. Rep. No. 104-628 (1996).

Section 4332a of Title 42 was added to NEPA by Section 1319 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) (Pub. L. No. 112-141), a massive reauthorization of the federal highway program. Although contained in the federal highway authorization act in order to expedite environmental planning for new and expanded highways, the new provision applies generally to environmental planning.

Source Note

There is an extensive literature of commentary, criticism, and analysis of NEPA and its implementation. Of course, the most authoritative pronouncements emanate from the Council on Environmental Quality

Bibliography

Legislative History and Congressional Documents

Executive Orders and OMB/OIRA Documents

ACUS Recommendations

Council on Environmental Quality Documents

Books and Articles

Agency Regulations

Federal agencies have promulgated their own individualized regulations within the parameters set by the CEQ regulations.

Statutory Provisions

National Environmental Policy Act

Title 42 U.S. Code

Subchapter I—Policies and Goals

Subchapter II—Council on Environmental Quality