National Environmental Policy Act
42 U.S.C. §§ 4321–4347 (2012); enacted by Pub. L. No. 91-190, 83 Stat. 852, Jan. 1, 1970. Amended by Pub. L. No. 94-52, § 2, 89 Stat. 258, July 3, 1975; by Pub. L. No. 94-83, 89 Stat. 424, Aug. 9, 1975; by Pub. L. No. 112-141, Div. A, Title I, Subtitle C, § 1319, 126 Stat. 551, July 6, 2012.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Legislative History
- 3 Bibliography
- 4 Statutory Provisions
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first federal statute to use the “impact statement” approach in federal regulation. Its purpose is to require federal agencies to analyze and consider the environmental impact of their actions in an open and public process. NEPA also created the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) within the Executive Office of the President.
Environmental Impact Statements
The core of NEPA is found in section 102(2)(C) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 4332(2)(C)), which creates the environmental impact statement (EIS) requirement. The provision requires that:
all agencies of the Federal Government . . . include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official on—(i) the environmental impact of the proposed action, (ii) any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented, (iii) alternatives to the proposed action, (iv) the relationship between local short-term uses of man’s environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and (v) any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented.
The provision requires the responsible federal official to consult with and seek comments from other affected agencies. Copies of the statements and relevant comments must be made public and must accompany the proposal through the agency review process.
Despite language in NEPA that might be construed otherwise, the Supreme Court has held that NEPA does not impose any substantive requirement on agencies to favor the environment in the agency’s decisionmaking. See Strycker’s Bay Neighborhood Council, Inc. v. Karlen, 444 U.S. 223 (1980). Notwithstanding the lack of substantive requirements, NEPA has been the source of an extremely large number of challenges to agency action, arguing either that the agency failed to prepare an EIS when NEPA required it or that the EIS that the agency prepared was inadequate. Even after 45 years, agencies frequently lose these suits, with the result that the agency action is enjoined until the agency fully complies with NEPA’s procedural requirements.
Council on Environmental Quality Role
The CEQ, created by title 11 of NEPA, is the legal overseer of NEPA and was active in shaping NEPA law in its early years. Until 2000, it prepared extensive annual environmental quality reports pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which was effectively repealed in that year. CEQ took the lead in developing appropriate procedures for EIS preparation. In Executive Order 11514, Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality, issued shortly after NEPA’s passage, President Nixon gave CEQ the authority to issue guidelines to agencies for the preparation of EISs. The CEQ’s original guidelines were nonbinding but were relied upon by most federal agencies when promulgating their own procedures. Statements on Proposed Federal Actions Affecting the Environment, 36 Fed. Reg. 7724 (Apr. 23, 1971). In 1977, President Carter significantly expanded CEQ’s authority by giving it the power to issue binding regulations in Executive Order 11991, Relating to Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality, (May 24, 1977). These regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R Parts 1500–1508. See Implementation of Procedural Provisions, 43 Fed. Reg. 55978 (Nov. 28, 1978). The Supreme Court has since treated these regulations as deserving substantial deference. See Andrus v. Sierra Club, 442 U.S. 347 (1979).
The CEQ regulations cover many of the procedural issues that have emerged in the extensive litigation over the meaning of NEPA’s terms. The regulations, all in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, provide comprehensive guidance on what constitutes a “major federal action” requiring an EIS, the preparation of draft, supplemental and final statements, page limits, recommended format and content (Part 1502); the comment process (Part 1503); predecision referral of interagency disputes to CEQ (Part 1504); integration with agency decisionmaking (Part 1505); elimination of duplication with state and local requirements and procedures for filing with EPA (Part 1506); and agency compliance (Part 1507).
In addition to the regulations, CEQ also provided continuing guidance to agencies on implementation of NEPA. For example, in 1981 it published the Memorandum to Agencies Containing Answers to 40 Most Asked Questions on NEPA Regulations. In April 1981, it issued a Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping on the subject of “scoping guidance.” In 1983, after a solicitation of comments on the existing regulations and a two-year review process, CEQ published a supplemental memorandum giving further guidance to agencies. In 1993, it issued a guidance memorandum on the subject of pollution prevention and NEPA. In 1997, it issued two guidance memoranda, one on cumulative effects analysis under NEPA and the other on considering environmental justice under NEPA. In 2002, CEQ established a NEPA Task Force to undertake a thorough review of NEPA implementation. The Task Force’s report, Modernizing NEPA Implementation, was issued a year later. It contained recommendations designed to modernize the implementation of NEPA and make the NEPA process more effective and efficient.
More recently, CEQ has provided guidance on the use of categorical exclusions (in which agencies may exempt certain actions from NEPA review) and on the use of mitigating measures to avoid a finding of significant impact on the environment. In addition, CEQ has issued guidance to assist agencies in analyzing greenhouse gas emissions and climate change effects of their proposed actions under NEPA. Most recently, CEQ issued interim guidance in January 2023 stating that agencies should consider (1) the potential effects of a proposed action on climate change, including by assessing both greenhouse gas emissions and reductions from the proposed action, and (2) the effects of climate change on a proposed action and its environmental impacts.
The CEQ also compiles annual data on the number of environmental impact statements filed by agencies and the trends in NEPA litigation.
Originally, under 42 U.S.C. § 4342, CEQ consisted of three members appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, one of whom the President designated as chairman. However, beginning in 1997, Congress inserted a provision in annual appropriations acts stating that, notwithstanding this section of NEPA, the CEQ would consist of one member appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, who should serve as chairman.
Senators Henry M. Jackson and Ted Stevens introduced S. 1075, the original NEPA legislation, on February 18, 1969. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a research program on environmental problems and created the Council on Environmental Quality. A hearing was held April 16, 1969 during which witnesses (primarily Lynton Caldwell, professor of political science at Indiana University) urged the creation of an “action-forcing” mechanism, which later became the environmental impact statement. S. 1075 was reported with amendments and an accompanying report of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs on July 9, 1969. The following day the bill passed the Senate unanimously.
A House of Representatives’ subcommittee of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries held a series of hearings during May and June 1969 on various related bills. On July 1, 1969, Representative John Dingell and others introduced H.R. 12549, which became the leading House bill. It, however, lacked the impact statement requirement. On July 11, 1969, the full Committee reported H.R. 12549. A supplemental report was filed on July 19. On September 23, 1969, the House passed the Senate bill, but only after substituting the text of the House bill in place of the Senate’s language. It then requested a conference.
On October 8, 1969, after listening to Senator Jackson address the differences between the two versions, the Senate voted to insist on its version and appointed conferees. On December 17, 1969, the conference committee reported out a substitute version of S. 1075. This compromise version accepted the Senate’s environmental impact statement requirement, adding the language “to the fullest extent possible.” That same day, the Senate approved the Conference Report. The House followed suit on December 23. The bill became Pub. L. No. 91-190 on January 1, 1970.
Section 201 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4341, which required the President to transmit an annual report to Congress relating to the environment, was eliminated by the Federal Reports Elimination and Sunset Act of 1995 (Pub. L. No. 104-66).
Section 202 of NEPA, 42 U.S.C. § 4342, was effectively amended, although its language was not changed, by a series of annual riders to appropriation acts beginning in 1997 and culminating in a permanent rider to an appropriation act in 2005 that states: “That notwithstanding section 202 of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the Council shall consist of one member, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving as chairman and exercising all powers, functions, and duties of the Council.” See (Pub. L. No. 109-54, Title III). This was apparently the consequence of President Clinton’s failure (or refusal) to appoint more than one member of the Council. See H.R. Rep. No. 104-628 (1996).
Section 4332a of Title 42 was added to NEPA by Section 1319 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) (Pub. L. No. 112-141), a massive reauthorization of the federal highway program. Although contained in the federal highway authorization act in order to expedite environmental planning for new and expanded highways, the new provision applies generally to environmental planning.
The Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023 (FRA) contained multiple amendments to NEPA. See H.R. 3746, Title III, Sec. 321 (2023). These amendments included, among other things, procedures for the appointment of a lead agency where multiple agencies are involved in the environmental review, page limits and deadlines for environmental documents, and rules governing the agency's adoption of categorial exclusions of another agency. In addition, the FRA directed CEQ to conduct a study and submit a report to Congress within one year of enactment of the FRA on the potential for online and digital technologies to address delays in reviews and improve public accessibility and transparency of NEPA reviews.
There is an extensive literature of commentary, criticism, and analysis of NEPA and its implementation. Of course, the most authoritative pronouncements emanate from the Council on Environmental Quality
Legislative History and Congressional Documents
- Congressional White Paper on a National Policy for the Environment submitted to the United States Congress under the Auspices of the S. Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs and the H. Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong. (1968).
- Joint House-Senate Colloquium to Discuss a National Policy for the Environment, Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong. (1968).
- Report of Managing the Environment, Staff of Subcomm. on Science, Research, and Dev. of the H. Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 90th Cong. (1968).
- Conference Report on S. 1075, H.R. Rep. No. 91-765 (1969).
- Report to Accompany S. 1075, S. Rep. No. 91-296 (1969).
- Report to Accompany H.R. 12549, H.R. Rep. No. 91-378 (1969).
- Hearings on the Administration of the National Environmental Policy Act, Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation of the H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 91st Cong. (1971) (2 parts).
- Hearings on National Environmental Policy Act Oversight, Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Env’t of the H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 94th Cong. (1976).
- Staff of Senate Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, Council on Environmental Quality: Oversight Report, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (1976).
- Hearings on CEQ Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act, Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Env’t, H. Comm. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 95th Cong. (1978).
- Hearings on Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act by the Council on Environmental Quality, Before the Subcomm. on Toxic Substances and Envtl. Oversight of the S. Comm. on Env’t and Public Works, 97th Cong. (1982).
- Hearings on Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Before the Subcomm. on Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances of the S. Comm. on Environmental and Public Works, 100th Cong. (1987-1988).
- Hearing on the Application of the National Environmental Policy Act, Before the Subcomm. on Oversight and Investigations of the S. Comm. on Energy and Natural Resources, 104th Cong. (1995).
- Hearing on the Efforts by the Federal Land Management Agencies to Strengthen the National Environmental Policy Act, Before the Subcomm. on Oversight and Investigations, S. Comm. on Energy and Natural Resources, 104th Cong. (1996).
- Problems and Issues with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Oversight Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Resources Before the H. Comm. on Res., 105th Cong. (1998).
- MAP-21 Conference Report to Accompany H.R. 4348, H.R. Rep. No. 112-557 (2012).
- The Council on Environmental Quality’s FY 2013 Funding Request and the Effects on NEPA, National Ocean Policy and Other Federal Environmental Policy Initiatives, Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 112th Cong. (2012).
- Hearing on H.R. 250, H.R. 382, H.R. 432, H.R. 758, H.R. 1512, H.R. 1434, H.R. 1439, H.R. 1459, and H.R. 885, Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Pub. Lands and Envtl. Regulation of the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 113th Cong. (2013).
- The Department of the Interior’s Proposal to Use a Categorical Exclusion Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for Adding Species to the Lacey Act’s List of Injurious Wildlife, Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs of the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 113th Cong. (2013).
- H.R. Rep. No. 113-385 (2014).
- Modernizing NEPA for the 21st Century, Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 115th Cong. (2017) (video).
- The Weaponization of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Implications of Environmental Lawfare, Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Nat. Res., 115th Cong. (2018) (video).
- Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023, H.R. 3746, Title III, Sec. 321 (2023).
Executive Orders and OMB/OIRA Documents
- Executive Order 11514, Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality, 35 Fed. Reg. 4247 (Mar. 5, 1970).
- Executive Order 11991, Relating to Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality, 42 Fed. Reg. 26967 (May 24, 1977).
- Executive Order 12852, President’s Council on Sustainable Development, 58 Fed. Reg. 39107 (July 19, 1993).
- Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations, 60 Fed. Reg. 6381 (Feb. 11, 1994).
- Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52117 (Oct. 8, 2009).
- Executive Order 13807, Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure Projects, 82 Fed. Reg. 40463 (Aug. 15, 2017).
- M-18-13, One Federal Decision Framework for the Environmental Review and Authorization Process for Major Infrastructure Projects Under Executive Order 13807 (Mar. 20, 2018).
- Memorandum of Understanding Implementing One Federal Decision Under Executive Order 13807 (Apr. 9, 2018).
- M-21-23, Revocation of OMB Memorandum M-21-01, "Budget and Management Guidance on Updates to the Regulations Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act" (April 26, 2021).
- 73-6, Procedures for Resolution of Environmental Issues in Licensing Proceedings
- 84-1, Public Regulation of Siting of Industrial Development Projects
- 85-2, Agency Procedures for Performing Regulatory Analysis of Rules
Council on Environmental Quality Documents
- Environmental Quality Annual Reports, 1970-1997.
- Environmental Impact Statements: An Analysis of Six Years’ Experience by Seventy Federal Agencies (1976).
- Memorandum to Agencies: Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ’s National Environmental Policy Act Regulations (Mar. 23, 1981)
- Memorandum for General Counsels, NEPA Liaisons and Participants in Scoping (Apr. 30, 1981).
- Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations, 48 Fed. Reg. 34263–68 (July 28, 1983).
- Memorandum to Heads of Departments and Agencies Regarding Pollution Prevention and the National Environmental Policy Act, 58 Fed. Reg. 6478–81 (Jan. 29, 1993).
- Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations into Environmental Impact Analysis Under the National Environmental Policy Act (1993).
- Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (1997).
- Guidance on NEPA Analyses for Transboundary Impacts (1997).
- Environmental Justice Guidance Under the National Environmental Policy Act (1997).
- Memorandum for Heads of Federal Agencies: Designation of Non-Federal Agencies to be Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of NEPA (July 28, 1999).
- Memorandum for Heads of Federal Agencies: Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (Jan. 30, 2002).
- Memorandum to Heads of Federal Agencies: Reporting Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (Dec. 23, 2004).
- Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis (June 24, 2005).
- Memorandum for Federal NEPA Contacts: Emergency Actions and NEPA (Sept. 8, 2005).
- Memorandum on Environmental Conflict Resolution (Nov. 28, 2005).
- Aligning National Environmental Policy Act Process with Environmental Management Systems (2007).
- Collaboration in NEPA: A Handbook for NEPA Practitioners (2007).
- A Citizen’s Guide to the NEPA: Having Your Voice Heard (2007).
- Draft NEPA Guidance on Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Feb. 18, 2010).
- Memorandum for Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies: Emergencies and NEPA (May 12, 2010).
- Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Dec. 6, 2010).
- Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact (Jan. 14, 2011).
- Final Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Mar. 12, 2012).
- Joint Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution (Sept. 7, 2012).
- NEPA and NHPA: A Handbook for Integrating NEPA and Section 106 (2013).
- NEPA and CEQA: Integrating State and Federal Environmental Reviews (2014).
- Memorandum for Heads of Departments and Agencies: Guidance on Effective Use of Programmatic NEPA Reviews (Dec. 18, 2014).
- Emergencies and the National Environmental Policy Act (2016).
- Initial List of Actions to Enhance and Modernize the Federal Environmental Review and Authorization Process, 82 Fed. Reg. 43226 (Sept. 17, 2017).
- Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gases (2019).
- Emergencies and NEPA Guidance (2020).
- National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Regulations (2022).
Books and Articles
- Frederick R. Anderson, NEPA in the Courts: A Legal Analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act (Res. for the Future, Inc.; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1973).
- Richard R. L. Andrews et al., Substantive Guidance for Environmental Impact Assessment: An Exploratory Study (Inst. for Ecology, Butler Univ., 1977).
- Eugene Bardach & Lucian Pugliaresi, The Environmental Impact Statement vs. The Real World, 49 Pub. Int. 22 (1977).
- Richard K. Berg & Roger C. Cramton, On Leading a Horse to Water: NEPA and the Federal Bureaucracy, 71 Mich. L. Rev. 511 (1973).
- Michael C. Blumm & Keith Mosman, The Overlooked Role of the National Environmental Policy Act in Protecting the Western Environment: NEPA in the Ninth Circuit, 2 Wash. J. Envtl. L. & Pol’y 193 (2012).
- Michael C. Blumm & Marla Nelson, Pluralism and the Environment Revisited: The Role of Comment Agencies in NEPA Litigation, 37 Vt. L. Rev. 5 (2013).
- Sharon Buccino, NEPA under Assault: Congressional and Administrative Proposals Would Weaken Environmental Review and Public Participation, 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 50 (2003).
- Michael Burger; Jessica Wentz, Downstream and Upstream Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Proper Scope of NEPA Review, 41 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 109 (2017).
- L. Caldwell, A Study of Ways to Improve the Scientific Content and Methodology of Environmental Impact Analysis (Sch. of Pub. & Envtl. Affairs, Ind. Univ., 1982).
- Ray Clark & Larry Canter, Environmental Policy and NEPA: Past, Present, and Future (CRC Press 1997).
- Jamison E. Colburn, The Risk in Discretion: Substantive NEPA’s Significance, 41 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 1 (2016).
- Wendy B. Davis, The Fox Is Guarding the Henhouse: Enhancing the Role of the EPA in FONSI Determinations Pursuant to NEPA, 39 Akron L. Rev. 35 (2006).
- Holly Doremus, Through Another’s Eyes: Getting the Benefit of Outside Perspectives in Environmental Review, 38 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 247 (2011).
- Envtl. Law Inst., NEPA Deskbook (4th ed. 2014).
- Arthur F. Ferguson, The Sin of Omission: Inaction as Action Under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 53 Ind. L.J. 497 (1978).
- Robert L. Fischman & Mark S. Squillace, Environmental Law—Environmental Decisionmaking: NEPA and the Endangered Species Act (Anderson Publ’g Co., 3d ed. 2000).
- Melanie Fisher, The CEQ Regulations: New Stage in the Evolution of NEPA, 3 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 347 (1979).
- Victor B. Flatt, The “Worst Case” May Be the Best: Rethinking NEPA Law to Avoid Future Environmental Disasters, 6 Envt’l & Energy L & Pol’y J 25 (2011).
- Valerie Fogelman, Guide to the National Environmental Policy Act: Interpretations, Applications, and Compliance (Praeger 1990).
- Robert L. Glicksman, David L. Markell, William B. Buzbee, Daniel R. Mandelker & Daniel Bodansky, Environmental Protection: Law and Policy, Chapter IV (Wolters Kluwer 2011).
- Craig N. Johnston, William F. Funk & Victor B. Flatt, Legal Protection of the Environment, Chapter 2 (West Publ’g, 3d ed. 2010).
- Bradley C. Karkkainen, Whither NEPA?, 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 333 (2004).
- Bradley C. Karkkainen, Toward a Smarter NEPA: Monitoring and Managing Government’s Environmental Performance, 102 Colum. L. Rev. 903 (2002).
- Ian M. Kirschner, Comment, NEPA’s Forgotten Clause: Impact Statements for Legislative Proposals, 58 B.U. L. Rev. 560 (1978).
- Harold Leventhal, Environmental Decisionmaking and the Role of the Courts, 122 U. Pa. L. Rev. 509 (1974).
- Daniel R. Mandelker, NEPA Law and Litigation (Clark Boardman Callaghan, 2d ed. 2014).
- Thomas O. McGarity, The Courts, the Agencies and NEPA Threshold Issues, 55 Tex. L. Rev. 801 (1977).
- Thomas O. McGarity, Pt.1 The Role of Regulatory Analysis in Regulatory Decisionmaking.pdf The Role of Regulatory Analysis in Regulatory Decisionmaking (May 1985) (report to ACUS).
- Arthur W. Murphy, The National Environmental Policy Act and the Licensing Process: Environmentalist Magna Carta or Agency Coup de Grace? (1975) (report to ACUS).
- Gregory L. Ogden, Report on Public Regulation of Siting of Industrial Development Projects (July 1984) (report to ACUS).
- Mark A. Pridgeon et al., State Environmental Policy Acts: A Survey of Recent Developments, 2 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 419 (1978).
- Mark Reeve, Comment, Scientific Uncertainty and the National Environmental Policy Act—The Council on Environmental Quality’s Regulation 40 CFR section 1502.22, 60 Wash. L. Rev. 101 (1984).
- Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., Dealing With Climate Change Under the National Environmental Policy Act, Climate Change--Laws, regulations and rules, Environmental Impact Statements, Greenhouse Gases, 43 Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 173 (2018).
- William Rodgers, Jr., Environmental Law, Chapter 9 (West Publ’g, 2d ed. 1994).
- John Ruple, Mark Capone, NEPA, FLPMA, and Impact Reduction: An Empirical Assessment of BLM Resource Management Planning and NEPA in the Mountain West, 46 Envtl. L. 953 (2016).
- Courtney A. Schultz, History of the Cumulative Effects Analysis Requirement Under NEPA and Its Interpretation in U.S. Forest Service Case Law, 27 J. Envtl. L. & Litig. 125 (2012).
- Helen Leanne Seassio, Legislative and Executive Efforts to Modernize NEPA and Create Efficiencies in Environmental Review, 45 Tex. Envtl. L.J. 317 (2015).
- Serge Taylor, Making Bureaucracies Think: The Environmental Impact Statement Strategy of Administrative Reform (Stan. U. Press 1984).
- James T.B. Tripp & Nathan G. Alley, Streamlining NEPA’s Environmental Review Process: Suggestions for Agency Reform, 12 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 74 (2003).
- Charles F. Weiss, Note, Federal Agency Treatment of Uncertainty in Environmental Impact Statements Under the CEQ’s Amended NEPA Regulation § 1502.22: Worst Case Analysis or Risk Threshold?, 86 Mich. L. Rev. 777 (1988).
- N.C. Yost, The Governance of Environmental Affairs—Toward Consensus (Aspen Inst. for Humanistic Studies, 1982).
Federal agencies have promulgated their own individualized regulations within the parameters set by the CEQ regulations.
- Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (36 C.F.R. Part 805)
- Agency for International Development (22 C.F.R. Part 216)
- Agricultural Research Service (7 C.F.R. Part 520)
- Agriculture Department (7 C.F.R. Part 1b)
- Air Force Department (32 C.F.R. Part 989)
- Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (7 C.F.R. Part 372)
- Army Corps of Engineers (33 C.F.R. Part 230)
- Army Department (32 C.F.R. Part 651)
- Bureau of Land Management (43 C.F.R. Part 1600)
- Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled (41 C.F.R. Part 51–7)
- Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (12 C.F.R. Part 1815)
- Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 C.F.R. Part 1021)
- Denali Commission (45 C.F.R. Part 900)
- Energy Department (10 C.F.R. Part 1021)
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Environmental Quality Council
- Purpose and Policy (40 C.F.R. Part 1500)
- NEPA and Agency Planning (40 C.F.R. Part 1501)
- Environmental Impact Statement (40 C.F.R. Part 1502)
- Commenting on Environmental Impact Statements (40 C.F.R. Part 1503)
- Predecision Referrals to the Council of Proposed Federal Actions Determined to Be Environmentally Unsatisfactory (40 C.F.R. Part 1504)
- NEPA and Agency Decisionmaking (40 C.F.R. Part 1505)
- Other Requirements of NEPA (40 C.F.R. Part 1506)
- Agency Compliance (40 C.F.R. Part 1507)
- Definitions (40 C.F.R. Part 1508)
- Office of Environmental Quality Management Fund (40 C.F.R. Part 1518)
- Export-Import Bank (12 C.F.R. Part 408)
- Farm Service Agency (7 C.F.R. Part 799)
- Federal Communications Commission (47 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. I)
- Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (18 C.F.R. Part 380)
- Federal Highway Administration (23 C.F.R. Part 771)
- Federal Maritime Commission (46 C.F.R. Part 504)
- Federal Trade Commission (16 C.F.R. Part 1, Subpt. I)
- Federal Transit Administration (23 C.F.R. Part 771)
- Food and Drug Administration (21 C.F.R. Part 25)
- Forest Service (36 C.F.R. Part 220)
- Housing and Urban Development Department
- Interior Department (43 C.F.R. Part 46)
- Justice Department (28 C.F.R. Part 61)
- Labor Department (29 C.F.R. Part 11)
- Marine Mammal Commission (50 C.F.R. Part 530)
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (14 C.F.R. Part 1216)
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (49 C.F.R. Part 520)
- National Institute of Food and Agriculture (7 C.F.R. 3407)
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Estuarine Research Reserve System (15 C.F.R. § 921.13)
- National Science Foundation (45 C.F.R. Part 640)
- Natural Resources Conservation Service (7 C.F.R. Part 650)
- Navy Department (32 C.F.R. Part 775)
- Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 C.F.R. Part 51)
- Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation (36 C.F.R. Part 907)
- Postal Service (39 C.F.R. Part 775)
- Presidio Trust (36 C.F.R. Part 1010)
- Securities and Exchange Commission (17 C.F.R. Part 200, Subpt. K)
- State Department (22 C.F.R. Part 161)
- Surface Transportation Board (49 C.F.R. Part 1105)
- USDA Rural Development (7 C.F.R. Part 1970)
- Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission (43 C.F.R. Part 10010)
- Veterans Affairs Department (38 C.F.R. Part 26)
- Water Resources Council (18 C.F.R. Part 707)
National Environmental Policy Act
Title 42 U.S. Code
- § 4331. Congressional declaration of national environmental policy
- § 4332. Cooperation of agencies; reports; availability of information; recommendations; international and national coordination efforts
- § 4333. Conformity of administrative procedures to national environmental policy
- § 4334. Other statutory obligations of agencies
- § 4335. Efforts supplemental to existing authorizations